Record the place as it appears (AACR2 1.4C1). Example:

a. Multiple languages or scripts:

If the place appears in more than one language or script, record the place in the language or script of the title proper (AACR2 1.4C1).

b. Higher jurisdictions:

If the place and its higher jurisdiction appear in the same source on the piece, record both, when considered necessary (AACR2 1.4C3). If the higher jurisdiction appears elsewhere on the piece, add to the local place if the local place name is common to several cities, or the city is very obscure and its location is likely to be unknown. Applying the same criteria, add the higher jurisdiction in brackets when it does not appear anywhere in the piece (AACR2 1.4C3). When supplying the higher jurisdiction, give it in its English form, when available (LCRI 1.4C6). Example:

If the higher jurisdiction is found on the piece in an abbreviated form, use this form in the place of publication. When it appears in the full form, use the abbreviations found in Appendix B (1.4B4). For example, for states in the United States, give the postal abbreviation in the form in which it is given if that is the form found on the piece; otherwise abbreviate the state as found in Appendix B (LCRI B14). Example:

c. Supplying the full form or a better known form of the name:

If the place is given in a form that isn’t common, supply a more common form (AACR2 1.4C2). If the place is given only in an abbreviated form, supply the spelled-out form (AACR2 1.4C4). Example:

d. Place is not given; uncertain or unknown:

If there is no place given in the piece, supply the place in its English form, when possible (AACR2 1.4C6/LCRI). For instance, if a publication is issued by a government, the capital city can usually be assumed to be the probable place of publication.

If the city cannot be determined, the country, state, province, etc. should be supplied, whenever possible. For instance, if cataloging a conference publication that is issued every year in a different city in Great Britain, supply [Great Britain] as the place of publication. If it is questionable, add a question mark.

Note: The question mark is always input at the end of the entire place of publication, even if the city is what is questionable, because the city and its higher jurisdiction are treated as one unit. Example:

On the rare occasion when no place can be determined, use "[S.l.]". If the name of the publisher is also in brackets, use only one set of brackets. "S.l." is often used for conference publications that carry only a place of venue that changes from year to year. Example:

If the conference is sponsored by an organization, the location of its "main office" can be determined, supply that place as the probable place of publication. Example:

See also:

10.3. Place of publication