Character position definition and scope:

The Modified record is a one-character alphabetic code that indicates whether any data in a bibliographic record is a modification of information that appeared on the item being cataloged or that was intended to be included in the MARC record.

Such modifications include:

the romanization of data that originally appeared in a non-roman script;

substitution of characters available for those characters that could not be converted to machine-readable form (e.g., special symbols "");

shortening of records because the amount of data exceeded a system imposed maximum allowable length.

A record is not considered to be modified when romanizing fields in the record that are not transcriptions of data from the item (e.g., headings, complete nonquoted fields, subscription address, etc.).  MARC equivalents for certain letters used in lesser known languages using the Roman alphabet are also not considered to be modified.

A fill character ( | ) is used when no attempt has been made to code this 008 position.

Record requirements for position 008/38 for all types of material:  for National-level records - Mandatory; for Minimal-level records - Optional.

Validity by material type:  Valid for all types.

Guidelines for applying content designators:

Precedence of codes:  When more than one code applies to a bibliographic item, use the following table to determine the appropriate code to use.  The codes are listed in precedence order, with codes listed first taking precedence over codes listed subsequently.  Code # (blank) is the highest priority.




Not modified




Dashed-on information omitted


Missing characters


Completely romanized/printed cards in nonroman script


Completely romanized/printed cards in roman script only


No attempt to code

Content designator history:

uUnknown  [obsolete]  [CAN/MARC only]

Related MARC field or document:

MARC 21 Specifications for Record Structure, Character Sets, and Exchange Media

See also:

008/00-39:  Character Positions by Type of Material

008  Fixed-Length Data Elements