Term of Address, etc., for Pre-20th Century Persons:

For persons who lived before, or primarily before, 1901 and whose headings conflict, in the absence of firm dates resolve the conflict with one of the following additions:

1. a term of address

2. a descriptive phrase

3. "flourished" date(s) (cf. LCRI 22.17 - 22.20)

4. "century" date(s) (cf. LCRI 22.17 - 22.20)

Descriptive phrases may include titles of position or office, initials of an academic degree, and initials denoting membership in an organization, as well as more general phrases describing the person.

In general, prefer terms of address over descriptive phrases, descriptive phrases over "flourished" date(s), "flourished" date(s) over "century" date(s). (BL practice: The British Library will generally use "flourished" or "century" dates in preference to terms of address; do not change such headings to conform to LC practice.) Also, prefer terms of address and descriptive phrases appearing with the name on the chief source of information of the item being cataloged over terms of address and descriptive phrases found elsewhere in the item, and prefer terms of address and descriptive phrases found in the item over those found in reference sources.,

When a descriptive phrase is long or complex and would result in an awkward addition to the heading, prefer the "flourished" or "century" date(s).

In general, when choosing terms of address or descriptive phrases to resolve conflict, use the one that provides the most specific and distinctive identification of the person.

Make the additions to names in which the entry element is a given name, etc. (22.19A), or a surname (22.19B).

When making the addition to a given name, etc., add the term of address or descriptive phrase within parentheses. When making the addition to a surname, use a comma to separate the name and the term of address or descriptive phrase.

Example A


When no other means is available for distinguishing between a musician and another person with the same name for whom a heading is already established (including changing the existing heading), a word designating a musician’s occupation, such as "violinist," "keyboard player," or "soprano," may be used as a qualifier. The term used should be in English and in the form of an agent noun, e.g., "oboist" for one listed as playing the oboe.

Change a currently undifferentiated heading to one with such a qualifier when it is being used on a new bibliographic record. If a qualifier later appears to give a seriously inaccurate characterization of the musician, change the heading by 1. the addition of a date, 2. the addition of a fuller form of name, or 3. changing the qualifier.

Biblical Figures:

When the heading for a mortal mentioned in the Bible conflicts, and the conflict cannot be resolved by the addition of another qualifier (e.g., 22.8A1, 22.13A), add in parentheses the term "Biblical" plus the designation of the major Biblical category that fits the person (e.g., "(Biblical prophet)," "(Biblical patriarch)"). If the person does not fir one of the major Biblical categories, use "(Biblical figure)."

See also:

22. Persons