In general, apply the guidelines in LCRI 26 when formulating the reference structure for new authority records and in evaluating references on existing authority records.


Note that in LC displays the terms "search under" and "search also under" have replaced "see" and "see also" in the referral line. However, the terminology see and see also reference has been retained in these instructions for ease of explanation.


Do not trace a reference that would normalize to the same form as the heading on the same record or to the same form as a heading on another record.

Forms of References:

In general, construct a reference in the same form in which it would be constructed if chosen as the heading. However, because the LC AACR2 authority file includes headings constructed according to earlier practices, in some cases references must be formulated to "match" the existing heading. Specific instructions are below.

1. Personal names.

a. Dates. Include dates in references if they have been included in the heading. If the form of reference conflicts with an established heading, resolve the conflict by using dates in the reference, although they are not used in the heading.

b. Initials. In references containing initials, generally include in parentheses the full form of the name represented by the initial(s) when known. However, if the initial is represented in the heading without the full form being given there, make the reference "match" the heading.


Do not combine different language forms or romanizations.


c. Titles/epithets. Include titles and epithets used in the heading in the reference unless, for titles, they are not appropriate to the form in the reference, or, for epithets, the purpose is to refer from a form containing a different epithet. For variant language forms for a person entered under surname, include titles of nobility and terms of honor and address in the form found in the source for the reference. If the source for the reference does not include the title, etc., use in the reference the term used in the heading, although it is in a different language.


d. Compatible headings. Normally, construct the reference to "match" the AACR2 compatible element in the heading. Exception: Do not use "pseud." in references.


2. Corporate names.

a. Qualifiers. Include qualifiers in the reference if appropriate to the form in the reference even if the qualifier has not been used in the heading because of earlier policies or because it is not appropriate there. Exception: Do not add a qualifier to a reference consisting solely of an initialism.


b. Terms of incorporation. Construct the reference to "match" the heading with regard to the presence, absence, or form of a term of incorporation.


Combined References:

When reference is made to two or more different headings from the same form, trace individual references rather than listing on one combined reference all headings referred to through the cataloger-generated reference technique. Use a cataloger-generated reference only when a special explanatory referral legend is needed, e.g., for pseudonymous authors (cf. LCRI 22.2B).

Typographic Style:

Generally, LC typographic style will not change.

Initial Articles:

Treat references just as headings with respect to deletion/retention of initial articles.


See also:

26. References