Precede each area other than the first by a period-space-dash-space (. -- ) unless the area begins a new paragraph.

Precede or enclose each occurrence of an element of an area with standard punctuation as prescribed in these rules.

Precede each mark of prescribed punctuation by a space and follow it by a space, except for the comma, period, and opening and closing parentheses and square brackets. The comma, period, and closing parentheses and square bracket are not preceded by a space; the hyphen and the opening parentheses and square bracket are not followed by a space.

Precede the first element of each area, other than the first element of the first area or the first element of an area beginning a new paragraph, by a period-space-dash-space. If paragraphing is used, end paragraphs with normal punctuation (usually a period).

Indicate an interpolation (i.e., data taken from outside the prescribed source(s) of information) by enclosing it in square brackets. Indicate a conjectural interpolation by adding a question mark within the square brackets.

Indicate the omission of part of an element by the mark of omission (...). Precede and follow the mark of omission by a space. Omit any area or element that does not apply in describing an individual item; also omit its prescribed preceding or enclosing punctuation. Do not indicate the omission of an area or element by the mark of omission. If the mark of omission precedes a period, omit the period, even if it is prescribed punctuation.

[title] ... -- [edition statement]

Do not transcribe the punctuation marks ... or [ ]; replace them by -- and ( ), respectively.

When adjacent elements within one area are to be enclosed in square brackets, enclose them in one set of square brackets.

[New York : Bender], 1980-

When adjacent elements are in different areas, enclose each element in a set of square brackets.

[2nd ed.]. -- [Chicago, Ill.] : Commerce Clearing House

When an element of description ends with an abbreviation or other word or character followed by a period, and the prescribed punctuation following that element is a period, do not give the period indicating abbreviation, etc.

1 v. (loose-leaf) ; 29 cm. -- (Business law monographs ; 8)

not 1 v. (loose-leaf) ; 29 cm.. -- (Business law monographs ; 8)

See also:

0. General Rules