Transcribe the place of publication, distribution, etc., in the form and the grammatical case in which it appears.

If the place of publication, distribution, etc., on a replacement title page differs from the original or earlier ones, transcribe the latest place of publication, distribution, etc.

If the name of the place appears in more than one language or script, record the form in the language or script of the title proper. If this criterion does not apply, record the form that appears first.

If a place of publication and the name of its larger jurisdiction(s) (e.g., county, state, or similar designation) appear together in the source from which they are being transcribed (e.g., title page, cover (binder), etc.), transcribe all that appear. Do this even if the place does not need to be identified or is clearly the best known one of that name.

4C. Example 1

If a place of publication and the name of its larger jurisdiction do not appear together, supply the name of the country, state, province, etc., if it is considered necessary for identification or distribution, using the English form of name if there is one. Use abbreviations (see AACR 2, 1988 revision, Appendix B.14).

4C. Example 2

If a place name is found only in an abbreviated form in the publication, transcribe it as found, and add the full form or complete the name.

4C. Example 3

If two or more places in which a publisher, distributor, etc., has offices are named in the publication, give the first named place. Give any of the source of information. If the first named place and any place given prominence are not in the home country of the cataloging agency, give also the first of any subsequently named places that is in the home country. Omit all other places.

4C. Example 4

For items with two or more places of publication, distribution, etc., relating to two or more publishers, distributors, etc., see 4D.

If the place of publication, distribution, etc., is uncertain, supply the probable place in the language of the chief source of information, followed by a question mark.

If no place or probable place can be given, give the abbreviation s.l. ( sine loco), or its equivalent in a nonroman script.

Optionally, give the full address of a publisher, distributor, etc., after the name of the place. Enclose the full address in parentheses. Do not give the full address for major trade publishers. (LC follows the option if the publication meets these three conditions, regardless whether the publisher is a major or minor one (see LCRI 1.4C7)):

it was issued by a U.S. publisher, distributor, etc.,., whose address is given in the publication being cataloged;

it is still being issued or was issued in the current three years;

it does not bear an ISBN or ISSN.

Do not transcribe this information if two or more publishers, distributors, etc., are being recorded in the publication, etc., area.

When applying this rule, routinely repeat the name of the city in the address. For street addresses, abbreviate such words as "street," "avenue," etc., according to normal usage. Omit necessary elements from the address. Do not bracket any of the elements given in the address.

4C. Example 5

See also:

4. Publication, Distribution, Etc., Area