Publication, Distribution, Etc.:


Place names supplied from outside the work itself are given in a well-established English form. (10) Example:

Place Unknown:

Commercial Bodies, Institutions, Etc.

Government Bodies

Personal Publishers

Abbreviated Place Names:

When the local place name for a place of publication is abbreviated on the item, the full form of the name is created by one of two methods: by supplying the missing letters only or by following the abbreviation with the full form of name. Use judgment in choosing the appropriate method. However, generally the more complicated the addition of missing letters, the more likely the full name should be supplied. Examples:

Standard abbreviations of state and country names are used as "... additions to the name of the place of publication or distribution in the place of publication, distribution, etc. area ...." (11) However, when supplying any of the listed state or country place names as a probable place of publication, distribution, etc. the full form of the name is used. Example:

Punctuation of "Uncertain Place Names":

An uncertain place of publication, distribution, etc., is treated as an integral unit and, therefore, the question mark is universally added following the qualifier. Example: