Precede each area, other than the first, by a period-space-dash-space (. -- ) unless the area begins a new paragraph.

Precede or enclose each occurrence of an element of an area with standard punctuation as indicated in the "prescribed punctuation" sections of these rules.

Precede each mark of prescribed punctuation by a space and follow it by a space, with the following exceptions:  the comma, period, closing parenthesis, and closing square bracket are not preceded by a space; the opening parenthesis and opening square bracket are not followed by a space.

End paragraphs with normal punctuation (usually the period).

If an entire area or element is omitted from the bibliographic description (e.g., because it is not present in the source), also omit its corresponding prescribed punctuation.  Do not use the mark of omission.

See also:

0.  General Rules