Character position definition and scope:

The Date 1 character positions contain a date specified by the code in 008/06 (Type of date/Publication status).  The determination of dates for 008/07-10 is made concurrently with the choice of code for 008/06.  See 008/06 code definitions for examples.  Also see 008/06 for the legal characters to enter in Date 1.  The use of fill characters ( | ) in 008/07-10, although possible, is discouraged since the data in Date 1 is used for retrieval and duplicate detection in many systems.  When fill is used in 008/07-10, all four positions must contain the fill character.

Record requirements for position 008/07-10 for all types of material:  for National-level records - Mandatory; for Minimal-level records - Optional.

Validity by material type:  Valid for all types.

Guidelines for applying content designators:

Valid character:


0 - 9





Not applicable

The table below gives a summary of the date entered in 008/07-10 based on the Type of date code entered in 008/06.  For a detailed description of the 008/06-14 entries and for examples on entering the 008/07-10 character positions, click on the specific code description in the 008/06 Type of Date and Code column.

Type of Date and Code:

Date 1 / Beginning date of publication:

No date; B.C. date:


b  No dates given; B. C. date involved

Contain # (blanks); use ####.

|   No attempt to code

Contain | (fill characters); use ||||.



Single date:


e  Detailed date

Contain the year.

s  Single known date/probable date

Contain one known single date of distribution, publication, release, production, execution, writing, or a probable date that can be represented by four digits.



Multiple dates:


i   Inclusive dates of collection

Contain the beginning inclusive date applicable to a collection.

k  Range of years of bulk of collection

Contain the beginning year in the range of years covered by most of the material in the collection.

m  Multiple dates

Usually contain the initial (or beginning) date of the range of years of publication.

p  Date of distribution/release/issue and production/recording session when different

Contain the date of distribution/release/issue.

r  Reprint/reissue date and original date

Contain the date of reproduction or reissue.

t  Publication date and copyright date

Contain the date of publication, release, production, or execution.



Unknown dates:


n  Dates unknown

Unknown; use uuuu.

q  Questionable date

Exact date is not known but a range of years for the date can be specified.  Contains the earliest possible date.



Continuing resource publication status:


c  Continuing resource currently published

Contain the beginning date of publication.

d  Continuing resource ceased publication (Dead status)

Contain the beginning date of publication.

u  Continuing resource status unknown

Contain the beginning date of publication.

Content designator history:

Prior to 1995, zeros or blanks were used for unknown portions of Date 1 and Date 2 for some forms of material.

Related MARC fields or documents:

008/06 All materials:  Type of date/Publication status

008/11-14 All materials:  Date 2/Ending date of publication

260  Publication, Distribution, Etc. (Imprint)

362  Dates of Publication and/or Sequential Designation

See also:

008/00-39:  Character Positions by Type of Material

008  Fixed-Length Data Elements