Access point:  A name, term, code, etc., under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified.  (AACR2)

Accompanying material:  Material issued with, and intended to be used with, the item being catalogued.  (AACR2)

Accompanying material:  A complementary part of a software package, physically separate from the software and frequently in a different medium, such as a user's manual accompanying a computer disk.  Materials that accompany computer software include documentation of various kinds, codebooks, reference cards, keyboard templates, maps, audiocassettes, tutorials, and other items.  (ANSI/NISO Z39.67-1993)

Accompanying material:  According to AACR2, "material that is issued with and designed to be used with another work."  This could include items such as a teacher’s manual, a pamphlet, a statutory supplement.  Supplements are the most common type of accompanying material found in legal publications.  (CCM Module 34)

Acetate film:  Safety film with a base composed principally of cellulose acetate or triacetate.  (Gwinn)

Act:  Another name for statutory law.  A bill passed by one house and referred to another becomes an act.  After passage, the terms act and law can be used interchangeably ( FN 4).  Can also be a synonym for the term statute.

Added entry:  An entry, additional to the main entry, by which an item is represented in a catalogue; a secondary entry.  (AACR2)

Added title page:  A title page preceding or following the title page chosen as the basis for the description of the item.  It may be more general (e.g., a series title page), or equally general (e.g., a title page in another language).  (AACR2)

Added title page title:  A title appearing on a title page that has not been chosen as the chief source.  (CCM)

Administrative regulations:  Rules or orders promulgated by a governmental agency under statutory authority to carry out the intent of the law.  In the United States, regulations have the force of law.  In other jurisdictions, such as Canada and Great Britain, they are known as statutory instruments which are considered to be laws because the regulations are returned to the parliaments for review and enactment.  These distinctions affect choice of entry under AACR2 21.32.

Advance sheet:  A pamphlet or set of pages issued prior to (in advance of) the publication of a bound volume.  Frequently encountered in law reports, where advance sheets publish the decisions of a court long before the cases are compiled into bound volumes.

Aggregator:  A company that provides digitized access to the content of many different serials and other resources, often from a variety of different publishers.  Aggregators may also be called by other terms, including but not limited to:  distributors, vendors, or secondary publishers.  Aggregators provide access to digitized material through a searchable database.  Generally the collections that aggregators produce fall into two different categories:  those that provide access to complete issues of serials and those that contain the text of selected articles from serial issues.  (CCM)

Aggregator database:  The searchable collection of digitized material produced by an aggregator.  (CCM)

Aggregator-neutral record:  A catalog record representing all versions of a resource made available by multiple online providers.  (CCM)

Alternative numbers:  A secondary system of numeric designation (e.g., vol. 1, no. 1 = Whole No. 1)  (CCM)

Alternative title:  The second part of a title proper that consists of two parts, each of which is a title; the parts are joined by or or its equivalent in another language (e.g., The tempest, or The enchanted island).  (AACR2)

Analytic:  An individual title in a series.  The analytic may be a monograph or a serial.  (CCM)

Analytical title page:  The title page of an individual work in a series.  (CCM)

Analyzable:  A series is described as "analyzable" because it contains titles that could be separately cataloged.  A word or phrase cannot be a series if it is not "analyzable" (i.e., it does not have additional titles that could be separately cataloged).  (CCM)

Analyze (v.):  To catalog the individual titles.  If a series is "analyzed," all or some of the titles in the series are cataloged separately.  (CCM)

Announcing a commitment to preserve.  An OCLC technique through which a minimal level bibliographic record is created to queue future preservation action.  After the preservation action is completed, the minimal-level record is upgraded to the full level.  (OCLC)

Anonymous FTP:  (File Transfer Protocol).  Allows retrieval of electronic resources from a remote site without requiring a user ID or password.  (CCM)

Aperture card:  A card with one or more rectangular opening(s), or aperture(s), specifically prepared for the mounting or insertion of a piece of photographic film containing one or more microimage(s).  The cards are usually EAM (Electrical Accounting Machine) punched cards, commonly known as IBM cards, that are standardized for use in card-handling machines.  Such cards contain only one aperture and most frequently have only one microimage.  (MARC 21 Bibliographic)

ASCII:  Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.  A coding scheme that assigns numeric values to letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and certain other characters.  By standardizing the values used for these characters, ASCII enables computers and computer programs to exchange information.  (Microsoft)
A standard character-to-number encoding scheme used widely in the computing industry.  The term “ASCII” is also used to refer to electronic files that consist only of plain text.  (



Base:  A transparent plastic material, usually of cellulose triacetate or polyester, upon which a photographic emulsion or other material may be coated.  (Gwinn)

Bibliographic resource:  An expression or manifestation of a work that forms the basis for bibliographic description.  A bibliographic resource may be tangible or intangible.  (AACR2)

Blog:  A Web site (or section of a Web site) where users can post a chronological, up-to-date entry of their thoughts.  Basically, it is an open forum communication tool that, depending on the Web site, is either very individualistic or performs a crucial function for a company.  (Netlingo)

Body of the entry:  Areas 1-6 of the catalog record (i.e., the title statement through the series).  (CCM)

Born-digital:  An adjective describing a document that was created and exists only in digital format.  (The Word Spy)

Browsers:  Software programs for reading hypertext documents.  Browsers are mounted locally either on site for terminal mode or on the user's PC.  Netscape, Internet Explorer, and Lynx are examples of hypertext browsers used to view World Wide Web documents.  Netscape and Internet Explorer are graphical browsers, Windows- or Mac-based; Lynx is a text-only terminal mode browser.  They all allow a user to read and follow hypertext links specified in a document.  They vary in their ability to handle graphic or sound files.  (CCM)



Caption title:  A title given at the beginning of the first page of the text.  (AACR2)

Cases:  Reported decisions of a court, usually first published in law reports.

CD-ROM:  Acronym for compact disc read-only memory, a form of storage characterized by high capacity (roughly 600 megabytes) and the use of laser optics rather than magnetic means for reading data.  (Microsoft)  See also Optical disc (Electronic resources).

Chief source of information:  The source of bibliographic data to be given preference as the source from which a bibliographic description (or portion thereof) is prepared (AACR2).  For serials, the chief source is the title page or title page substitute of the first or earliest issue.

Chronological designation:  A date, or combination of dates, numbers, or words that identifies an issue of a serial within a chronological sequence.  (CCM)

Chronological edition:  A chronological edition of a newspaper is one of possibly several distributions of the same issue of a newspaper in one day.  Chronological editions are not considered to be bibliographic editions unless they carry different titles.  (CCM)

Chronological relationship:  The relationship in time between bibliographic items (e.g., the relation of a serial to its predecessors and successors).  (MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data)

Citation title:  The title or name of an act, which generally appears in one of the first sections of the text.  In United States federal law, the phrase "this act shall be known as ..." often precedes the citation title.  In descriptive cataloging, it is the preferred title to use in establishing a uniform title for an act.  Sometimes referred to as a short title.

Citations:  Stylized legal references to documents such as court cases, statutes, or law review articles ( FN 5).

Citator:  A compilation of citations to court cases or statutes arranged systematically under the court decision or statute.  The most widely used citators are Shepard’s Citations.

Client:  A software application that works on your behalf to extract a service from a server somewhere on the network.  (Krol)

Cloning:  The process of using an online bibliographic record for either the hard copy or another microform version to create a new bibliographic record for the reproduction microform of the same serial.  (CCM)

Code:  According to Black’s:  "A systematic collection, compendium or revision of laws, rules, or regulations (e.g. Uniform Commercial Code)."  Similarly, in civil law countries as well as some states, the term refers to a comprehensive law covering a broad subject area, such as a Civil Code, Criminal Code, Commercial Code, etc.  "A private or official compilation of all permanent laws of a jurisdiction that are in force, classified and categorized by subject matter (e.g. United States Code)."  A code may also be distinguished from a collection of statutes or session laws by virtue of having been recompiled and enacted as a collection, whereas the original statutes or sessions laws were separately enacted by the legislature.  Cf. Compiled statutes.

Collation:  That part of the catalog entry which describes the work as a material object, enumerating its volumes, pages, size, etc., and the type and character of its illustrations.  (ALA Glossary)

Collected set:  The term "collected" is used at LC to mean "classified together;" thus, a collected set is one in which all issues of the series are classed together under the same call number.  (CCM)

Collected set record:  A serial record for the series.  A collected set record is required whenever any issues of the series are classed or "collected" under the same call number. ( FN)  (CCM)

Colophon:  A statement at the end of an item giving information about one or more of the following:  the title, author(s), publisher, printer, date of publication or printing.  It may include other information.  (AACR2)

Coloured illustration:  An illustration in two or more colours.  (Neither black nor white is a colour.)  (AACR2)

Commercial microform:  A microform that is created and sold by a micropublisher.  Commercial microforms are service copies; the micropublisher may or may not hold the master negative.  (CCM)

Commercial publisher:  A corporate body whose primary function is that of publishing.  (CCM)

Common title:  A title common to two or more works, each of which carries the title and/or designation of a section.  (CCM)

Compact disc:  Also called an optical disc.  A nonmagnetic, polished metal or plastic disk used to store digital information.  The disk is read by an optical scanning mechanism that uses a high- intensity light source, such as a laser, and mirrors.  (Microsoft)  See also Optical disc.

Compiled statutes:  A collection of statutes, existing and in force in a given state, recompiled and systematically arranged by some principle.

The terms compilation, revised statutes, and code are sometimes used interchangeably, but the preface to Minnesota Statutes, 1998 gives these definitions:

A compilation is a rearrangement by subject matter of current laws or statutes of general application without change in language or substance.  It is prepared either by persons or commissions officially authorized by the legislature or by private publishers without any official authorization.  A compilation is never enacted by the legislature as law.  It is, therefore, not law but merely evidence of it.  The original session laws remain the law, and in case of conflict between the compilation and the session laws, the session laws prevail. …

A revision is something more than a compilation.  It is, like a compilation, a rearrangement by subject matter of the current statutes of general application; but unlike a compilation, it almost always involves changes in the language of existing statutes so as to clarify ambiguities and reduce verbiage.  It may also involve changes in substance, particularly for the purpose of eliminating conflicts in existing statutes.  The scope of the revision can often be determined by reference to the statute or resolution which authorizes the revision and tells the revisors what they are to do.

The chief difference between a compilation and a revision is that a revision is always passed by the legislature as a separate law.  When the revisors have completed their work, the revision is introduced in the legislature as a bill and is considered and passed in the same way as any other law.  This means, theoretically at least, that the revision is the law, not merely evidence of it, and that in cases of conflict between the revision and the session laws, the revision governs.  Often, however, legislatures do not give full effect to this principle.  They frequently limit the effect of a revision by stating that its provisions are to be construed as continuations of the laws from which they were derived and not as new enactments.  …

A code is a systematic arrangement in statutory form of all existing statutory and common law.  Codification changes the form and may change the substance of the law.  New provisions may be added.  Codes, such as the Code Napoleon, are prevalent in civil law countries.  In the United States, modified forms of codification are found in specific fields where revisors or advisory commissions rewrite the law in the light of existing statutes, cases, and principles of law ( FN6).

Compiler:  1. One who produces a collection by selecting and putting together matter from the works of various persons or bodies.  2. One who selects and puts together in one publication matter from the works of one person or body.  (AACR2)

Component parts:  Separately issued parts or pieces of a work that together form the work as a whole.  Distinguished from accompanying material in that the parts are more integral to the whole.  For example, a loose-leaf service may have, in addition to the main textual volumes, transfer volumes, an annotation service, and various supplements.  The component parts may be referred to in notes and added entries in the cataloging record.  Although it may appear that they require separate cataloging because they bear a title and a numeric and/or chronological designation, they are not usually cataloged separately.

Computer file:  See Electronic resource.

Computer optical disc:  The term used in AACR2 cataloging as the special material designation to designate CD-ROM.  (CCM)  See also Optical disc (Electronic resources).

Computer-output microform (COM):  Any microform on which human-readable data are recorded directly from digital data by a computer without a printout as the intermediary.  (Gwinn, edited)

Conference:  1. A meeting of individuals or representatives of various bodies for the purpose of discussing and/or acting on topics of common interest.  2. A meeting of representatives of a corporate body that constitutes its legislative or governing body.  (AACR2)

Consecutive numbers:  Continuous numbers that do not repeat (i.e., go back to "1").  Examples are serials that have numbered issues (e.g., no. 1, no. 2, etc.) and most volume numbers.  Consecutive numbering can occur at any level within the numeric designation (e.g., v. 3, no. 800).  (CCM)

CONSER database:  The set of serial records input/created or otherwise introduced to the OCLC database that are authenticated by CONSER participants.  Although CONSER records reside in the local databases of CONSER institutions, maintenance is performed on CONSER records residing on OCLC, making that the authoritative set of CONSER records.  (CEG)

CONSER record:  A bibliographic record for a serial that has been authenticated by at least one participant in the CONSER Program.  (CEG)

Container:  Any housing for an item, a group of items, or part of an item that is physically separable from the material being housed.  (AACR2)  See also Physical carrier.

Continuing resource:  A bibliographic resource that is issued over time with no predetermined conclusion.  Continuing resources include serials and ongoing integrating resources.  (AACR2)

Copyright date:  A legal date that reflects the year in which an issue is registered for copyright protection.  (CCM)

Corporate body:  An organization or group of persons that is identified by a particular name and that acts, or may act, as an entity.  Typical examples of corporate bodies are associations, institutions, business firms, nonprofit enterprises, governments, government agencies, religious bodies, local churches, and conferences.  (AACR2)

Court reports:  See Law reports.

Court rules:  Regulations with the force of law governing practice and procedure in the various courts; rules governing the proceedings in a court.  May be promulgated by a court or courts, or by a legislative body.  In the United States, court rules that are promulgated by a legislature are laws.

Cover date:  A chronological designation that reflects the date of issuance rather than the coverage, such as the date found on the cover of magazines and periodicals.  (CCM)

Cover title:  A title printed on the cover of an item as issued.  (AACR2)

Coverage date:  A date that reflects the coverage of the contents of the item (e.g., FY 1989).  (CCM)

Cumulation:  An issue of a serial that collects all of the information given in the previous issues for a given period and is intended to replace those issues.  The cumulation may rearrange, correct, or expand the contents of the original issues but the combined contents of the original issues and the contents of the cumulation are essentially the same.  (CCM)



Database:  A collection of logically interrelated data stored together in one or more computerized files, usually created and managed by a database management system.  (MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data)

Database:  1) Set of interrelated files that is created and managed by a database management system.  2) Any electronically-stored collection of data.  (Freedman)

Delegated legislation:  See Administrative regulations; Statutory instruments.

Designation:  A number, letter, and/or date used to identify the issue of a serial.  (CCM)  See also Numbering.

Diazo film:  The emulsion consists of sensitized layers composed of diazonium salts that react with couplers to form dye images.  The color of the image is determined by the composition of the diazonium compound as well as the couplers used in the process and may be black, violet, or another color.  (MARC 21 Bibliographic)

Digest:  A systematically arranged collection, usually by topic, containing summaries of court decisions, statutes, bills, etc.  Most commonly serves as an index to cases reported in law reports.

Direct access (Electronic resources):  The use of electronic resources via carriers (e.g., discs/disks, cassettes, cartridges) designed to be inserted into a computerized device or its auxiliary equipment.  (AACR2)  See also Remote access (Electronic resources).

Disc (Electronic resources):  See Optical disc (Electronic resources).

Disc label:  See Label.

Disk (Electronic resources):  A magnetic disk, usually encased in a protective plastic jacket or rigid case, used by computerized devices for storing and retrieving electronic resources.  Disks can either be fixed or removable.  See also Floppy disk.

Diskette:  See Floppy disk.

Distinctive title:  A title that appears in addition to the title proper, is unique to an issue, and is often related to the topic or theme of that issue.  (CCM)

Distributor:  An agent or agency that has exclusive or shared marketing rights for an item.  (AACR2)

Documentation:  Information intended for use with the software package that describes the content or structure of the software or explains how to use it.  Also known as user manual, reference manual, etc.  Forms a part of accompanying material.  (ANSI/NISO Z39.67-1993)

DOS:  Disk Operating System.  1) Generic term for operating system.  2) Single-user operating system for the PC, PS/1 and PS/2 series from IBM.  DOS is also called PC-DOS to distinguish it from MS-DOS, the version for non-IBM PCs.  (Freedman)

DVD:  Digital versatile disc or digital video disc (DVD), a 4 3/4-in. (12-cm) disc used for the storage of digital data.  The successor media to the compact disc (CD), a DVD can have as much as 26 times the storage capacity of a CD.  When compared to CD technology, DVD also allows for better graphics and greater resolution.  The disc is covered with a protective, transparent coating so that it can be read by a laser beam.  As with other optical disks nothing touches the encoded portion, and the DVD is not worn out by the playing process.  Because DVD players are backward compatible to existing technologies, they can play CD and CD-ROM discs; however, CD players cannot play DVD and DVD-ROM discs.  (Columbia)

DVD-ROM:  Digital Versatile Disc Read Only Memory.  DVD-ROM discs hold computer data and are read by a DVD-ROM drive hooked up to a computer.  These disks can only be read—the disks are impressed with data at the factory but once written cannot be erased and rewritten with new data.  (Columbia)



Earliest entry cataloging:  The practice of describing a serial from the earliest issue and recording subsequent changes to the title or heading in notes.  Earliest entry cataloging was practiced during the early years of the 20th century.  (CCM)
The practice of creating a single catalog record for a serial based on a description of the earliest issue, making additional title entries for all later titles in the same record.  (CCM Module 34)

Edition:  electronic resources:  All copies embodying essentially the same content and issued by the same entity.  (AACR2)  See also Version.

Edition:  serials or "serial editions":  Separate complete serials that are issued simultaneously, usually with the same title, and that are intended for a specific audience.  (CCM)

Editor:  One who prepares for publication an item not his or her own.  The editorial work may be limited to the preparation of the item for the manufacturer, or it may include supervision of the manufacturing, revision (restitution), or elucidation of the content of the item, and the addition of an introduction, notes, and other critical matter.  In some cases, it may involve the technical direction of a staff of persons engaged in creating or compiling the content of the item.  (AACR2)

Electronic mailing list:  Internet software that automatically processes commands in an email forum environment.  It provides for automatic mailing of electronic serial issues to subscribers and handles messages sent to and from discussion lists.  (CCM)

Electronic newspaper:  A serial publication containing news on current events of special or general interest, issued as a group of inter-related computer files, and accessed through a remote electronic connection.  E-newspapers are distributed most often over the Internet.  (CCM)

Electronic resource:  Material (data and/or program(s)) encoded for manipulation by a computerized device.  This material may require the use of a peripheral directly connected to a computerized device (e.g., CD-ROM drive) or a connection to a computer network (e.g., the Internet).  (AACR2)

Email (electronic mail):  A system whereby a computer user can exchange messages with other computer users (or groups of users) via a communications network utilizing a standardized protocol.  Some electronic journals are available via electronic mail subscriptions, either through an electronic mailing list or by direct email from the distributor of the serial.  (CCM)

Emanation:  A publication "emanates" from a corporate body if (1) it is issued by the corporate body, (2) it is caused to be issued by the corporate body, or (3) the contents originate with the corporate body.  (AACR2 21.1B2)

Emulsion:  A single or multilayered coating consisting of light-sensitive materials in a medium carried as a thin layer on a film base.  (Gwinn)

Entry:  A record of an item in a catalogue.  (AACR2)

Executive orders:  "An order or regulation issued by the President or some administrative authority under his direction..."( FN 7)  A chief executive may either be delegated the power to issue executive orders, or in some jurisdictions the chief executive may have the power to issue laws by decree.

Extent of item:  The first element of the physical description area.  It gives the number and the specific material designation of the units of the item being described and, in some cases, other indications of the extent (e.g., duration).  (AACR2)



Facsimile reproduction:  A reproduction simulating the physical appearance of the original in addition to reproducing its contents exactly.  (AACR2)

File (Electronic resources):  A basic unit in which electronic resources are organized and stored.  See also Electronic resource.

Floppy disk:  Removable storage medium.  Also called a diskette, the medium is a single round disk of flexible, tape-like material housed in a square envelope (5 1/4") or (hard plastic 3 1/4") cartridge.  (Freedman, edited)  See also Disk (Electronic resources).

Fluctuating title:  A title that changes back and forth on a regular or irregular basis.  (CCM)

Formal statement:  A statement that appears on its own, or "in isolation," rather than within a block of text.  (CCM)

FTP (File Transfer Protocol):  A protocol that defines how to transfer files from one computer to another; also the access method used to move files from a remote location to a local site for use.  To retrieve files, the user initiates an FTP session by logging into a remote host computer, changing to the desired directory, and retrieving the files.  (CCM)



Gateway:  A computer system that transfers data between normally incompatible applications or networks.  It reformats the data so that it is acceptable for the new network (or application) before passing it on.  (CCM)

Gazette:  A government publication, sometimes referred to as an official journal, that publishes official notices, proclamations, regulations, etc.  May also be the method by which new laws are published.  In some jurisdictions a law is not official until published in its gazette ( FN 8).

General material designation:  A term indicating the broad class of material to which an item belongs (e.g., microform, sound recording).  (AACR2)  MARC 21 Bibliographic refers to the GMD as the "Medium."

Generation:  One of the successive stages of photographic reproductions.  Preservation master negative is the film actually used in the camera and is often referred to as the camera negative or the first-generation film.  In some standards, it is called the film storage copy.  Ideally it would only be used once, to generate a second master negative, known as the printing master or a second-generation or intermediate film.  (It is a "direct dupe" in micrographics jargon.)  The copy to be used by readers is known as the third generation, service copy, distribution copy, or work copy.  (Gwinn, p. 117, 140, 191)

Generic title:  A title made up of words that indicate no more than the type and/or periodicity of the serial.  (CCM)

Geographical edition:  A geographical edition is one of multiple publications issued at the same time by the same publisher and usually having the same title.  The contents of the editions generally vary to include news from different cities, towns, or regions.  (CCM)



Half title:  A title of a publication appearing on a leaf preceding the title page.  (AACR2)

Hard copy:  Any volume, document, or other material printed on paper.  (Gwinn)
Also called the "original item."  

Hardware:  The physical components of a computer system, including any peripheral equipment such as printers, modems, and mice.  (Microsoft)

Header (microform):  The eye-readable portion at the top of microfiche, usually containing the title and an indication of the contents of each sheet.  (CCM)

Heading:  A name, word, or phrase placed at the head of a catalogue entry to provide an access point.  (AACR2)

Holdings statement:  The portion of the catalog entry, following the title and edition statement, that indicated the library's holdings.  (CCM)

Home page (e-serials):  The hypertext document that serves as the "preface" for a service or publication mounted on the World Wide Web.  It is normally an introductory screen that provides general information about the institution maintaining the site, or a publication or group of publications available.  Hypertext links are included to access specific documents or files archived at the site.  (CCM)

Horizontal relationship:  The relationship between versions of a bibliographic item in different languages, format, media, etc.  (MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data)

Host computer:  A computer, also called a node, that directly provides service to a user.  (CCM)

Host name:  The address of the host computer on which a remote-access electronic resource resides.  (CCM)

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language):  A subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).  The language in which World Wide Web documents are written.  (CCM)

HTML header:  Refers to the HEAD element of HTML source code specifications.  The HEAD element contains information about the current document, such as the TITLE element and keywords that may be useful to search engines, and other data that is not considered document content.  The TITLE element can be displayed separately from the document in the browser title bar.  (CCM)

HTML header title:  The title displayed in the title element of the HTML HEAD portion of an HTML document, sometimes used interchangeably with Source code title.  (CCM)  See also Source code title.

HTML source:  The underlying source code for an HTML document.  It includes HTML elements such as the HEAD, BODY, TITLE, and other coding which gives information about the document and/or determines how a document is displayed in a browser.  (CCM)

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http):  Method of presenting information in which selected words or other document elements, when chosen, execute automatic links to related documents or files.  The linked documents on the World Wide Web may contain graphics, sound, or even moving images.  (CCM)



Imprint:  1.  The place and date of publication, and the name of the publisher or the printer (or sometimes both); ordinarily printed at the foot  of the title page.  2.  The statement giving such information in a bibliographical description of a printed work.  (ALA Glossary)

Integrating resource:  A bibliographic resource that is added to or changed by means of updates that do not remain discrete and are integrated into the whole.  Integrating resources may be finite or continuing.  Examples of integrating resources include updating loose-leafs and updating Web sites.  (AACR2)

Internal numbers:  Numbers within a volume that repeat with each volume (e.g., vol. 3, no. 2).  (CCM)

Internet:  The world-wide "network of networks" that are connected to each other, using the IP protocol and other similar protocols.  The Internet provides file transfer, remote login, electronic mail, news, and other services.  (Krol)

IP (Internet Protocol):  The most important of the protocols on which the Internet is based.  It allows a packet to traverse multiple networks on the way to its final destination.  Often, this is used in conjunction with TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), as in TCP/IP.  (Krol)

IP address:  The Internet Protocol or numeric address of a computer connected to the Internet.  It consists of four numbers separated by periods.  (CCM)

Issuing body:  A corporate body that is responsible for the issuance, and often the contents, of an item but whose primary function is not that of publishing.  (CCM)

Iteration:  An instance of an integrating resource, either as first published or after it has been updated.



Jewel case:  A hard plastic container often used to house a compact disc.  (CCM)

Joint author:  A person who collaborates with one or more other persons to produce a work in relation to which the collaborators perform the same function.  (AACR2)

Joy stick:  Pointing device used to move an object on screen in any direction.  It employs a vertical rod mounted on a base that contains one or more buttons.  (Freedman)

Jurisdiction:  (1) "A term of comprehensive import embracing every kind of judicial action.  …  It is the power of the court to decide a matter in controversy and assumes the existence of a duly constituted court with control over the subject matter and the parties." (Black’s); (2) "Authority of a sovereign power to govern or legislate; (3) the limits or territory within which any particular power may be exercised."( FN9)  In addition, the term is used in cataloging to differentiate a geographic name or heading which represents a government and is thus capable of authorship (e.g. Massachusetts) from a non-jurisdictional geographic name which is not capable of authorship (e.g. New England).





Label:  Refers to any paper, plastic, etc., label permanently affixed to a physical carrier, or information printed or embossed directly onto the physical carrier by the publisher, creator, etc., of the resource, as opposed to those on the container or to any label added locally.  (AACR2)

LAN:  Acronym for local area network, a group of computers and other devices dispersed over a relatively limited area and connected by a communications link that enables any device to interact with any other on the network.  (Microsoft)

Language edition:  A serial published simultaneously in different languages.  The publisher of all of the editions is usually the same.  The titles may be in different languages or in the same language.  (CCM)

Latest entry cataloging:  The practice of describing a serial from the most recent issue and recording earlier changes of title or heading in notes.  All of the ALA rules called for latest entry cataloging.  (CCM)
The practice of cataloging serials based on the latest issue available.  Information about earlier titles and publication details is recorded in notes and added entries.  (CCM Module 34)

Law:  See Statute.

Law reports:  Reported (published) decisions or opinions of a single court or of several courts collected and arranged by some principle, such as chronology, jurisdiction, subject.  Also known as court reports, they are issued as the "official" or unofficial reports, depending on the status conferred by the court.

Law review:  A scholarly journal containing articles on legal topics and emanating from a law school, usually edited by students at the school.

Legislation:  Laws enacted by a lawmaking body, i.e. a legislature, as opposed to court-made laws.

Licensing agreement:  A contract for use of software, which may include warranty, use limitations and other conditions for use.  (CCM)

Link resolver:  Server software that accepts citations to articles and other items (often formatted according to OpenURL standard) and uses a context sensitive link to connect users to designated target resources such as full-text repositories, A&I, and citation databases, online library catalogs; and other Web resources and services.  (CCM)

Loose-leaf publication:  See Updating loose-leaf.

Loose-leaf service:  A comprehensive loose-leaf publication that usually contains several component parts, such as loose-leaf volumes, transfer binders, annual bound volumes, bulletins, and current awareness newsletters, all of which may carry individual numeric or chronological designations, and are intended to be updated.



Magnetic tape:  Sequential storage medium used for data collection, backup and historical purposes.  Like videotape, computer tape is made of flexible plastic with one side coated with a ferromagnetic material.  Tapes come in reels, cartridges and cassettes of many sizes and shapes.  (Freedman)

Main entry:  The complete catalogue record of an item, presented in the form by which the entity is to be uniformly identified and cited.  The main entry may include the tracing(s).  (AACR2)

Main series:  A larger, more comprehensive series that includes subseries.  (CCM)

Major change:  A change that requires the creation of a new record.  (CCM)

Manufacturer:  The body responsible for the physical production of the item.  (CCM)

Master:  A microform from which duplicates or intermediates can be made.  (Gwinn)

Master bibliographic record convention:  Master bibliographic record convention, also called "master record" or "master record convention," is the practice of cataloging or describing a newspaper as if in its original format no matter what formats are held.  The different formats are identified in the "Copy" field of the OCLC holdings records that are attached to the bibliographic record.  This practice was developed by the U.S. Newspaper Program for cataloging domestic titles.  (CCM)

Master negative:  Any film, but generally the camera microfilm, used to produce further reproductions, such as intermediaries, distribution copies, or service copies.  (Gwinn)

Masthead:  A statement of title, ownership, editors, etc., of a newspaper or periodical.  In the case of newspapers it is commonly found on the editorial page at the top of page one, and, in the case of periodicals, on the contents page.  (AACR2)

Masthead:  The masthead (sometimes called flag, banner, or nameplate) contains the title statement and is found on the first, or front page.  It may also include the place of publication, designation, edition statement, the newspaper’s motto or philosophy, or the price.  (CCM Module 33)

Memory:  The computer's working storage (physically, a collection of RAM chips).  All program execution and data processing takes place in memory.  (Freedman)

Menu:  List of available options on screen.  Selection is accomplished by highlighting the option with a mouse or cursor keys and clicking the mouse or pressing Enter.  (Freedman)

Microfiche:  A sheet of film bearing a number of microimages in a two-dimensional array.  (AACR2)
A transparent sheet of photographic film containing microimages arranged in a grid pattern (a two-dimensional array) and having a heading that contains identifying information in text that is large enough to be read without magnification.  
(MARC 21 Bibliographic)

Microfilm:  A length of film bearing a number of microimages in linear array.  (AACR2)
Long strips of photographic film that are mounted on reels, in cartridges, and in cassettes.  The strips of film together with the containers that house them are called, respectively, microfilm reels, microfilm cartridges, and microfilm cassettes.  
(MARC 21 Bibliographic)

Microform:  A generic term for any medium, transparent or opaque, bearing microimages.  (AACR2)
microimage is a unit (e.g., a page) of textual, graphic, or computer-generated material that is contained on aperture cards, microfiche, microfilm, microopaques, or other microformats and that is too small to be read without magnification.  Microforms may be reproductions of existing textual or graphic materials or they may be original publications.  (MARC 21 Bibliographic)

Microform set:  Bibliographically separate titles that are collected under a set title, in microfilm or microfiche.  The set may be finite or ongoing.  The individual titles may be monographs, serials, or a combination of both.  (CCM)

Microopaque:  A sheet of opaque material bearing a number of microimages in a two- dimensional array.  (AACR2)
Microopaques resemble microfiche and usually have identifying information in text that is large enough to read without magnification.  
(MARC 21 Bibliographic)

Microproducer:  A body that produces microforms for bodies, such as a universities.  The microproducer may be compared to a printer of printed publications.  (CEG)

Micropublication:  See Original microform.

Micropublisher:  A publisher that is responsible for both publishing and producing a microform.  A micropublisher may be compared to a commercial publisher for printed publications.  (CEG)

Minor change:  A change that does not require the creation of a new record.  The change is noted in the record, when considered important.  (CCM)

Mirror site:  An alternative URI for accessing an electronic resource.  A mirror site might provide users in a particular geographic location better access than other URIs associated with the resource.

Mixed responsibility:  A work of mixed responsibility is one in which different persons or bodies contribute to its intellectual or artistic content by performing different kinds of activities (e.g., adapting or illustrating a work written by another person).  (AACR2)

Monograph:  A bibliographic resource that is complete in one part or complete or intended to be completed within a finite number of parts.  (AACR2)

Monographic series:  This is another term for "series".  It is misleading because it implies that the individual titles in the series are all monographs when some or all may be serials.  (CCM)

Mouse:  Puck-like object used as a pointing and drawing device.  As it is rolled across the desktop, the screen cursor (pointer) moves correspondingly.  (Freedman)

MS-DOS:  Microsoft-Disk Operating System.  Single-user operating system for PCs from Microsoft.  (Freedman)  See also DOS.

Multipart item:  A monograph complete, or intended to be completed, within a finite number of separate parts.  The separate parts may or may not be numbered.  (AACR2)

Multiple versions:  Publications that are identical in content but different in physical format.  (CCM)



National level record:  National level records (also called “national records”) adhere to cataloging standards to enhance their use by agencies world-wide.  CONSER records function as national serials records due to the fact that program catalogers follow standards found in AACR2, LCRI, MARC 21, CCM, and CEG.  CONSER records are available in the OCLC WorldCat catalog and other bibliographic utilities, and accessed through CONSER members’ local catalog systems.  (CCM)

Newspaper:  A serial publication which contains news on current events of special or general interest.  The individual parts are listed chronologically or numerically and appear usually at least once a week.  Newspapers usually have a masthead rather than a cover and are normally larger than A3 (297 mm x 420 mm.) in size.  (International Organization for Standardization)

Nitrate film:  Photographic film with a film base composed principally of cellulose nitrate.  Because nitrate film is highly flammable, it has largely been replaced by acetate film.  (Gwinn)

Numbering:  The identification of each of the successive items of a publication.  It can include a numeral, a letter, any other character, or the combination of these with or without an accompanying word (volume, number, etc.) and/or a chronological designation.  (AACR2)

Numeric designation:  A number or combination of numbers, dates, letters, or words that identifies an issue of a serial within a numeric sequence.  (CCM)



Operating system:  The software responsible for controlling the allocation and usage of hardware resources such as memory, central processing unit (CPU) time, disk space, and peripheral devices.  The operating system is the foundation on which applications, such as word-processing and spreadsheet programs, are built.  (Microsoft)

Optical disc (Electronic resources):  Any of several specific carriers delivering optically read data (e.g., CD-I, CD-ROM, Photo CD).  (AACR2)  See also Disk (Electronic resources).

Original microform:  A microform that is first issued in microform (usually microfiche), rather than being reproduced from an existing publication.  Original microforms are also referred to as micropublications.  (CCM)

Other title:  A title appearing on a source other than the chief source that is not the cover, spine, caption, added title page, or head/foot of each page.  (CCM)

Other title information:  A title borne by an item other than the title proper or parallel or series title(s); also any phrase appearing in conjunction with the title proper, etc., indicative of the character, contents, etc. of the item or the motives for, or occasion of, its production or publication.  The term includes subtitles, avant-titres, etc., but does not include variations on the title proper (e.g., spine titles, sleeve titles).  (AACR2)



Packaging information:  Information supplied on the physical packaging that is visible and eye-readable when the physical packaging is sealed.  (ANSI/NISO Z39.67-1993)

Parallel title:  The title proper in another language and/or script.  (AACR2)

PDF:  Portable Document Format.  The file format of documents viewed and created by the Adobe Acrobat Reader, Acrobat Capture, Adobe Distiller, Adobe Exchange, and the Adobe Acrobat Amber Plug-in for Netscape Navigator.  This file format was developed to standardize formatting of documents that are used on the Internet.  (NetLingo)

Periodical:  A serial appearing or intended to appear indefinitely at regular or stated intervals, generally more frequently than annually, each issue of which normally contains separate articles, stories, or other writings.  (AACR, ALA rules)

Peripheral:  In computing, a term used for devices, such as disk drives, printers, modems, and joysticks, that are connected to a computer and are controlled by its microprocessor.  (Microsoft)

Personal author:  The person chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work.  (AACR2)

Physical carrier:  A physical medium in which data, sound, images, etc., are stored.  For certain categories of material, the physical carrier consists of a storage medium (e.g., tape, film) sometimes encased in a plastic, metal, etc., housing (e.g., cassette, cartridge) that is an integral part of the item.  (AACR2)  See also Container.

Platform:  Hardware architecture of a particular model or computer family.  It is the standard to which software developers write their programs.  The term may also include the operating system.  (Freedman)

Pocket part (or Pocket supplement):  A supplement intended to be inserted in a slit in the back cover of a book.  Often issued on a regular basis and cumulatively, so that the earlier is discarded when the next is received.  When a pocket part becomes too thick to fit in the back of a book, it is often issued as a separate soft-bound supplement to the book.

Polarity:  The dark to light relationship of an image.  A negative has light images on a dark background; a positive has dark images on a light background.  (Gwinn, edited)

Preliminaries:  The title page(s) of an item, the verso of the title page(s), any pages preceding the title page(s), and the cover.  (AACR2)

Prescribed sources of information:  Sources from which data may be recorded in the bibliographic description without the use of brackets.  These are not necessarily the only sources from which information may be recorded.  (CCM)

Preservation master:  A first-generation or camera microfilm produced according to archival standards and stored under archival conditions.  It is generally used only to produce printing masters.  (Gwinn)
Current preservation standards are:  film stock (ANSI IT9.1-1988), production (ANSI AIIM MS23), enclosures (ANSI IT9.2-1989) and storage (ANSI PH1.43-1983).  (
ARL guidelines, slightly rev.)

Primary sources:  Publications which contain the official statements of law enforced by a state and judicial decisions of governmental institutions.  They are published as session laws, codes, constitutions, executive orders and decrees, administrative regulations and court decisions.

Printing master:  A negative that has been produced expressly for the purpose of making additional copies.  (Gwinn)

Prominently stated:  Appearing in a formal statement in one of the prescribed sources of information for areas 1 and 2 (AACR2 0.8).  For printed serials, this includes the title page or title page substitute, other preliminaries, or the colophon (AACR2 12.0B1).  (CCM)

Promulgate:  To publish; to announce officially ( FN 10).  To enact or issue laws or regulations.

Promulgating agency:  Also referred to as a "regulatory agency."  An administrative body, other than a court or legislature, that by statute has been delegated the power to make and issue regulations ( FN 11).

Prospective cataloging:  A technique for recording preservation data whereby a full-level bibliographic record is created for a microform or preservation photocopy in advance of the actual filming or photocopying being completed.  (OCLC)

Protocol:  A mutually-determined set of formats and procedures governing the exchange of information between different kinds of computers.  (CCM)

Provider:  A general term used throughout this module to refer to any company, publisher, or aggregator enabling access to digitized text.  (CCM)

Publication date:  The year in which a publication was issued.  The publication date usually appears with the place and name of the publisher.  (CCM)

Publisher:  The reproducer of a work intended for public consumption.  (Webster’s International Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1965)

Publisher's listing:  A list of the titles that have been published in the series.  Generally, a publisher’s listing is not considered to be a series title page, although the series statement may be taken from it.  (CCM)

Publisher's statement:  The publisher’s statement can be found anywhere in the newspaper, and may consist of one or two areas enclosed in lined boxes.  It may include the title, edition, place of publication, publisher, editor, designation, frequency, price, or address.  (CCM)



Qualifier:  A parenthetical word or phrase added to a corporate body heading or uniform title to distinguish the body or title from others with the same name or title.  (CCM)

Queue:  An announcement that preservation of an item will occur at some future time.  (OCLC)



RAM:  Acronym for random access memory.  Semiconductor-based memory that can be read and written by the microprocessor or other hardware devices.  The storage locations can be accessed in any order.  (Microsoft)

Reciprocal relationship:  The relationship between two items, as represented by paired linking fields (e.g., 780/785) or by a link with the same tag that is given in each related record (e.g., 775).  (CCM)

Record Consolidation:  The merging of information from multiple serial records into fewer records, and the deletion of records no longer needed to describe a serial.  The records to be deleted are sometimes called superseded records.  Record consolidation involves selecting a record to retain (or keep), modifying that record, and reporting superseded records for deletion.  (CEG)

Record Conversion:  In this module the term is generally used for the conversion of pre-AACR2 records to comply with AACR2 conventions (also called “recataloging”).  (CCM)

Record Separation:  Differences in, or changes to, cataloging standards may lead to the separation of data initially recorded in a single record that is then rearranged for multiple records.  This typically results in retaining and modifying the initial record and creating an additional record for a related serial title(s).  Some information from the initial record is then transferred to the new record(s).  (CCM)

Reduction ratio:  The relationship (ratio) between the dimensions of the original and the corresponding dimensions of the microimage; e.g., reduction ratio is expressed as 1:24.  (Gwinn, edited)

Regulations:  See Administrative regulations.

Release:  See Version.

Release date:  A date, consisting of the month and year that reflects the date of release for publication.  (CCM)

Remote access (Electronic resources):  The use of electronic resources via computer networks.  (AACR2)  See also Direct access (Electronic resources).

Reprint:  1. A new printing of an item made from the original type image, commonly by photographic methods.  The reprint may reproduce the original exactly (an impression) or it may contain minor but well-defined variations (an issue).  2. A new edition with substantially unchanged text.  (AACR2)

Reproduction:  A microform containing a work that has a bibliographic and/or physical identity which pre-exists that of the microform.  (CSB)
An item that is a copy of another item and is intended to function as a substitute for that item.  The copy may be in a different physical format from the original.  Reproduction is a mechanical rather than an intellectual process.  Due to the particular mechanical process used to create it, physical characteristics of the reproduction, such as color, image resolution, or sound fidelity may differ from those of the original.  Reproductions are usually made for such reasons as the original's limited availability, remote location, poor condition, high cost, or restricted utility.  
(CC:DA guidelines)

Revised statutes:  See Compiled statutes.

Running title:  A title or abbreviated title that is repeated at the head or foot of each page or leaf.  (AACR2)



Search engine:  The software used for search and retrieval in databases.  This software determines the searching capabilities available to the user.  (CCM)

Secondary sources:  Statements about the law which are used to interpret, explain, develop, locate or update primary authorities ( FN 12).  Examples of secondary sources include law reviews, treatises, loose-leaf services, digests, citators, etc.

Section:  A separately published part of a bibliographic resource, usually representing a particular subject category within the larger resource and identified by a designation that may be a topic, or an alphabetic or numeric designation, or a combination of these.  (AACR2)  See also Subseries.

Serial:  A continuing resource issued in successive discrete parts, usually bearing numbering, that has no predetermined conclusion.  Examples of serials include journals, magazines, electronic journals, continuing directories, annual reports, newspapers, and monographic series.  (AACR2)

Serial issued in parts:  A serial is issued in parts when each number or issue constitutes more than one physical item.  Each part is usually distinguished by numbers or letters and/or an individual title.  The parts all have the same common title and usually have the same numeric/chronological designation.  (CCM)

Seriality:  A dimension of resources that are not complete as first issued that refers to the fact that they are issued over time and thus, may exhibit change.  (CCM)

Series:  A group of separate items related to one another by the fact that each item bears, in addition to its own title proper, a collective title applying to the group as a whole.  The individual items may or may not be numbered.  (AACR2)

Series authority record (SAR):  Series authority records are created by LC and some CONSER/NCCP ( FN) participants and are included in the LC Name Authority File.  The SAR provides the form of entry and numbering to be used in tracings, as well as cross references and institution-specific treatment decisions.  (CCM)

Series title page:  An added title page bearing the series title proper and usually, though not necessarily, other information about the series (e.g., statement of responsibility, numeric designation, data relating to publication, title of the item within the series).  (AACR2)

Server:  Software that allows a computer to offer a service to another computer.  Other computers contact the server program by means of matching client software.  Also, the computer on which the server software runs is often called the "server."  (CCM)

Service copy:  A microform copy which is distributed for end use.  (Gwinn)

Session laws:  Laws enacted by a legislature during a legislative session.  "The name commonly given to the body of laws enacted by a state legislature during annual or biennial sessions.  Arrangement of laws enacted within a session may be by chapters of the compiled statutes or by number or date of enactment."( FN 13)  A collection of session laws is normally cumulated and bound at the end of an annual or biennial legislative session.

SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language):  A standard for formatting textual documents so that they can be read by different document processing tools.  (CCM)

Shared responsibility:  Collaboration between two or more persons or bodies performing the same kind of activity in the creation of the content of an item.  The contribution of each may form a separate and instinct part of the item, or the contribution of each may not be separable from that of the other(s).  (AACR2)

Short title:  An abbreviated title used in pre-AACR2 records for titles that were apt to vary.  Examples of short titles are "Transactions," "Proceedings," etc.  (CCM)

Short title:  See Citation title.  (CCM Module 34)

Silver film:  A film which is sensitized with silver halide (a compound of silver and one of the following elements known as halogens: chlorine, bromine, iodine, and fluorine).  Silver film is considered by many to be the only film suitable for archival purposes.  (Gwinn)

Sine loco (s.l.):  Without place (i.e., the name of the place of publication, distribution, etc. is unknown).  (AACR2)

Sine nomine (s.n.):  Without name (i.e., the name of the publisher, distributor, etc. is unknown).  (AACR2)

Software:   Instructions for the computer.  A series of instructions that performs a particular task is called a program or software program.  The two major categories are system software and application software.  (Freedman)

Software package:  The software, any related data files, the documentation, and any other accompanying material, all of which are available as a unit, although any of the components also might be available separately.  (ANSI/NISO Z39.67-1993)

Source code:  The form in which a computer program or Web site is written.  On the Internet, for example, the source code for a Web page could contain any of  the following languages:  HTML, JavaScript, Java, or SGML.  (NetLingo)

Source code title:  Generally refers to the title element appearing in the underlying source code of a document.  (CCM)  See also HTML header title.

Specific material designation:  A term indicating the special class of material (usually the class of physical object) to which an item belongs (e.g., microfiche, microfilm, sound disc).  (AACR2)

Spine title:  A title appearing on the spine of an item.  (AACR2)

Statement of responsibility:  A statement, transcribed from the item being described, relating to persons responsible for the intellectual or artistic content of the item, to corporate bodies from which the content emanates, or to persons or corporate bodies responsible for the performance of the content of the item.  (AACR2)

Statute:  An enacted piece of legislation, that declares, commands, or prohibits something ( FN 14).  May refer to an individual law, or to a body of laws, as in "compiled statutes", or "revised statutes."

Statutory instruments:  Administrative regulations and orders that are laws ( FN 15).  Countries such as Great Britain and Canada, among others, issue statutory instruments.  In Great Britain agencies must present proposed regulations to Parliament for approval.  The orders or statutory instruments then become law.

Subseries:  A series within a series (i.e., a series that always appears in conjunction with another, usually more comprehensive, series of which it forms a section).  Its title may or may not be dependent on the title of the main series.  (AACR2)  See also Section.

Subtitle:  The explanatory part of the title following the main title.  (ALA Glossary)

Successive entry cataloging:  The practice of creating a new record for a serial each time the entry changes in accordance with AACR2 21.2C1 and 23.3B1.  (CCM)

Successive numbering:  A numeric designation that begins again with number "1" (or its equivalent).  (CCM)

Superimposition:  The Library of Congress' practice of retaining ALA forms of headings in records described according to AACR.  Superimposition was practiced from 1967, when AACR was adopted, until 1981, when the Library began cataloging according to AACR2.  (CCM)

Supplement:  An item, usually issued separately, that complements one already published by bringing up-to-date or otherwise continuing the original or by containing a special feature not included in the original.  The supplement has a formal relationship with the original as expressed by common authorship, a common title or subtitle, and/or a stated intention to continue or supplement the original.  (AACR2)

Supplement:  An item, usually issued separately, that complements one already published by bringing the original work up-to-date.  In legal materials, the supplement often contains more recent case or statutory law.  May also contain material not found in the original work, such as a statutory supplement volume that reprints sections of statutes not printed in the main work.  See also Pocket part.  (CCM Module 34)

Supplied title:  A title provided by the cataloguer for an item that has no title proper on the chief source of information or its substitute.  It may be taken from elsewhere in the item itself or from a reference source, or it may be composed by the cataloguer.  (AACR2)

System details:  System information about an item.  Such information includes the presence or absence of certain kinds of codes or the physical characteristics of an electronic resource, such as recording densities, parity, or blocking factors.  (MARC 21)

System requirements:  Information about the hardware and software required to run a software item.  (ANSI/NISO Z39.67-1993)



Target:  An aid to technical or bibliographical control that is photographed on the film preceding or following the document.  (Gwinn)  The target is considered part of the microform product.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol):  One of the protocols on which the Internet is based (a connection-oriented reliable protocol).  Often used in combination with IP (Internet Protocol) as in TCP/IP.  (Krol)

Telnet:  The Internet protocol for remote terminal connection service.  Telnet allows a user at one site to log in and interact with a system at another site just as if the user’s terminal were connected directly to the remote computer.  (CCM)

Title:  A word, phrase, character, or group of characters, normally appearing in an item, that names the item or the work contained in it.  (AACR2)

Title bar:  The colored bar at the top of each window that displays the program and file names.  (NetLingo)

Title frame:  A frame containing written or printed material not part of the subject content of the item.  (AACR2)

Title of short duration:  A title proper that appears only on one or several issues of a serial.  (CCM)

Title page:  A page at the beginning of an item bearing the title proper and usually, though not necessarily, the statement of responsibility and the data relating to publication.  (AACR2)

Title page substitute:  A source other than a title page that contains the title and is used as the chief source of information in the absence of a title page (e.g., cover, caption, masthead, etc.).  (CCM)

Title proper:  The chief name of an item, including any alternative title but excluding parallel titles and other title information.  (AACR2)

Title screen (Electronic resources):  In the case of an electronic resource, a display of data that includes the title proper and usually, though not necessarily, the statement of responsibility and the data relating to publication.  (AACR2)

Tracing:  1. A record of the headings under which an item is represented in the catalogue.  2. A record of the references that have been made to a name or to the title of an item that is represented in the catalogue.  (AACR2)

Transfer binder (or transfer volume):  Separate storage binders into which material of a permanent nature is placed when it is removed from the main volumes of a loose-leaf service because it has been superseded.

Translation:  A serial that is translated into another language.  It is usually published by a different publisher than the original and at a later time.  (CCM)

Treatise:  In legal literature, a comprehensive, scholarly monographic treatment of a legal topic.  By extension, the term is sometimes applied to any monograph in a law library which is not a primary source and does not fall into another recognized category.

Treaty:  A compact, agreement or contract between two or more nations or sovereigns, formally signed and ratified.  It is both a law and a contract ( FN 16).  According to AACR2, an intergovernmental agreement between two or more national governments, or between intergovernmental bodies and national governments, or between national governments and governments below the national level.

Truncated title:  A title created according to ALA rules from which the frequency and/or the name of the issuing body was omitted.  (CCM)



Unanalyzable:  A title that does not contain further titles.  Most serials are "unanalyzable" (e.g., Newsweek, Statistical Yearbook, etc.).  Occasionally an issue of a series is published without an individual title and is thus, "unanalyzable" (LCRI 13.3. ).  (CCM)

Uniform title:  1. The particular title by which a work is to be identified for cataloguing purposes.  2. The particular title used to distinguish the heading for a work from the heading for a different work.  3. A conventional collective title used to collocate publications of an author, composer, or corporate body containing several works or extracts, etc., from several works (e.g., complete works, several works in a particular literary or musical form).  (AACR2)

United States Newspaper Program (USNP):  The U. S. Newspaper Program is a cooperative national effort to locate, catalog, preserve on microfilm, and make available to researchers, newspapers published in the United States.  The Program is supported by funds from the National Endowment for the Humanities, with technical support provided by the Library of Congress.  Projects in each of the fifty states and the U.S. Trust Territories survey newspaper collections, catalog the newspapers on OCLC, and select appropriate files for preservation on microfilm.  USNP is an associate member in CONSER and all USNP records are included in the CONSER database.  (CCM)

UNIX:  Multiuser, multitasking operating system from AT&T that runs on a wide variety of computer systems from micro to mainframe.  (Freedman)

Updating loose-leaf:  An integrating resource that consists of one or more base volumes updated by separate pages that are inserted, removed, and/or substituted.  (AACR2)

Updating supplement:  A supplement that adds to or updates information contained in the main work.  (CCM)

URI:  Uniform Resource Identifier.  Provides a standard syntax for locating files using existing Internet protocols as in a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or by resolution of a Uniform Resource Name (URN)  (CCM)

URL:  Uniform Resource Locator.  Location information of an electronic resource expressed in a standardized format, which allows for electronic resources to be sent and received automatically.  The World Wide Web uses the URL as the basis of linking to other files and documents around the Internet.  A URL can be identified by a protocol such as "http."  (CCM)

URN:  Uniform Resource Name.  A URI that has an institutional commitment to persistence, availability, etc.  A particular scheme, identified by the initial string "urn:", that is intended to serve as a persistent, location-independent, resource identifier.  (CCM)

Usenet News:  Separate from the Internet but available with many Internet accounts, it's a worldwide set of over 12,000 bulletin boards, called "newsgroups."  Software called a "newsreader" is used to read and post.  (CCM)

Userid:  Sometimes called "user name," userid is short for "user identification."  This precedes the @ sign in an email address.  (CCM)



Version:  A specific edition of software, often distinguished by a numeric or other designation (e.g., "3.1"; "Beta release"; "Revised"; "Macintosh version").  May also be termed an edition, level, release, update, or upgrade.  (ANSI/NISO Z39.67-1993)

Vertical relationship:  The hierarchical relationship of the whole to its parts and the parts to the whole (e.g., a journal article to the journal, subseries to main series).  (MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data)

Vesicular film:  A film in which the light-sensitive component is suspended in a plastic layer.  On exposure, the component creates optical vesicle (bubbles) in the layer.  These bubbles form the latent image.  The latent image becomes visible and fixed by heating the plastic layer and then allowing it to cool.  Vesicular films are commonly blue or beige in color.  They do not appear to have much contrast (very high density) until projected in a microfilm reader.  (MARC 21 Bibliographic)

Volume:  In the bibliographic sense, a major division of a work, regardless of its designation by the publisher, distinguished from other major divisions of the same work by having its own inclusive title page, half title, cover title, or portfolio title, and usually independent pagination, foliation, or signatures.  This major bibliographic unit may include various title pages and/or pagination.  (AACR2)

Volume title page:  A page that contains the title and designation for an entire volume, rather than the designation for a specific issue.  Volume title pages are often issued separately once the volume is complete.  (CCM)



Web site:  An electronic resource that consists of a collection of digital documents, commonly referred to as home pages, that are usually interconnected by the use of hypertext links.  Web site is a broad category of electronic resources, exclusive of resources that fit into other categories, such as databases or electronic journals.  (CCM)

Weblog:  See Blog.

Whole numbers:  The term "whole" numbering is used for serials that have single-level enumeration (e.g., no. 1, no. 2) and for single-level systems of enumeration that accompany volume numbers and internal numbers.  (CCM)

World Wide Web (WWW):  A hypertext-based system for locating and accessing Internet resources which presents materials to the user in the form of interlinked documents (which can include text, images, and digitized sound).  (CCM)



XML:  eXtensible Markup Language.  XML is a pared-down version of SGML, designed especially for Web documents.  It enables Web authors and Web developers to create their own customized tags to provide functionality not available with HTML.  (NetLingo)






See also: