22.2B3 says that if a person is a contemporary and uses more than one name, including at least one pseudonym, establish as many headings as names. For non-contemporaries, 22.2B2 says the same, provided the cataloger can identify what is called "separate bibliographic identities;" otherwise, non-contemporaries have one heading/person. The following paragraphs provide guidelines for defining "contemporary" and "separate bibliographic identities," and for formulating the necessary cross reference structure.

Multiple Headings - Contemporaries:

1. Consider all living authors and any author who has died since December 31, 1900, to be contemporary. In case of doubt, do not consider the person a contemporary.

2. Note that the following instructions for multiple headings override 22.2C whenever there is both a name change involving the real name and also the use of one or more pseudonyms: multiple headings also for earlier and later real names.

3. If the works appear under more than one name (as known from publications or reference sources) and these names include at least one pseudonym, create multiple headings, one for each name, including the possibly unused real name. Note: Establish separate headings only for pseudonyms used (or likely to be used) on separately published works. Pseudonyms used in other contexts (e.g., newspaper articles) are not separately established. ( FN 1)

4. If different names appear in different editions of the same work, choose for all editions of the same work the name that predominates in the editions of the same work. If, however, a change in the person’s bibliographic identification from an older name to a newer name that seems to be stable has taken place, choose that name for all editions. In case of doubt on any point, choose the name used latest for all editions.

Multiple Headings - Non-contemporaries:

If the works appear under more than one name, including at least one pseudonym, consider whether the different works show separate bibliographic identities for the author because the works can be divided into clearly differentiated types (e.g., one name for boys’ sport stories and another name for works on nuclear physics). If a clear differentiation based on this criterion is possible, create a different heading for each name. In case of doubt, do not consider that there are such separate bibliographic identities for the author and instead create a single heading for him/her (see the guideline at the end).

Multiple Headings - "Basic" Headings:

If according to these guidelines, only two headings are created for the author, do not attempt to choose a "basic" heading (see the next section on references for the directive to connect the two headings with simple "see also" references). When more than two headings are created, however, identify one of the headings as the "basic" heading for purposes of simplifying the cross reference structure when necessary and for supplying the subject cataloger with a heading to be used as the subject of biographical or critical works. Choose the "basic" heading according to the following instructions:

1. If multiple headings for the author have already been created, look for evidence of a single heading used in pre-AACR2 cataloging if that heading is readily available on existing name authority record(s). Use the AACR2 form for the pre-AACR2 heading as the "basic" heading.

2. If multiple headings for the author are now being created for the first time, use the existing single heading as the "basic" heading.

3. If multiple headings for the author already exist because there was no earlier indication that the multiple headings represented one person, use the predominant form as the "basic" heading.

Multiple Headings - References:

1. If only two headings are created for an author, connect the names with simple see also references (cf. 26.2C1).

2. If more than two headings are created for an author, choose a "basic" heading according to the above guidelines. On the authority record for this heading, trace cataloger-generated see also references from all other headings used, justify the references in 670 citations, according to normal practice. Provide a 663 cataloger-generated reference field listing all the other names established with the following text:

For works of this author entered under other names, search also under [list names]

On each of the other authority records created for the author, trace a cataloger-generated see also reference from the "basic" heading, justify that reference in a 670 citation, according to normal practice. (Other names may be mentioned in the 670 if it is convenient to do so.) Provide a 663 cataloger-generated reference field with the following text:

Works by this author are entered under the name used in the item. For a listing of other names used by this author, search also under [basic heading]

When the author uses another new name, create a new name authority record for that name and also add it to the reference structure and 663 listing on the authority record for the "basic" heading. (Do not add information about it to the authority records for other names used by the author.)


Single Heading:

If the preceding guidelines do not result in multiple headings for an author, because

1. the author uses only a single name, which is a pseudonym;


2. the author is not a contemporary and does not have separate bibliographic identities;

choose one name as the basis for a single heading. If a choice is necessary, choose the name under which the person has come to be identified in later editions of his or her works, in critical works, or in other references sources (in that order of preference). Make simple see references from other names.

Pre-1988 Policy:

For contemporary authors whose works appear under several pseudonyms (or under the real name and one or more pseudonyms), rule 22.2C2 in the 1978 edition of AACR2 required choosing for the heading the name used predominantly. References were made from the other names. Whenever a pseudonym (or real name) covered by a "see"-reference on a name authority record created according to the 1978 AACR2 is needed in post-1987 cataloging, change existing records according to the instructions above for "Multiple Headings - Contemporaries."

See also:

22.2. Choice Among Different Names