Islands and Island Groups:

Add to the name of an island or island group that is a jurisdiction the name of its larger jurisdiction only when the island or island group is located near the larger jurisdiction and is commonly associated with it. Otherwise, do not add the name of the larger jurisdiction. In case of doubt, do not add the larger jurisdiction.

Example A

For places on island, see LCRI 23.4F2.

Choice of Larger Place:

When adding the name of a larger place as a qualifier, use the heading for the current name of the larger place. If the smaller place existed when the larger place has an earlier name, and the name in the item pertains to the earlier period, make a reference from the form that shows the earlier name of the larger place if the qualifier is appropriate for the smaller place.

Example B

If the smaller place has changes its name or has ceased to exist, use as a qualifier the name the later place has during the period in which the name of the smaller place is applicable.

Example C

Form of Larger Place:

If the heading for the larger place being added to the smaller place is established according to the provisions of 24.6, do not include in the qualifier the additions prescribed in 24.6.

Example D

Exception: For Berlin as a government, use "Berlin (Germany)" before 1949 and after 1990. For 1949-1990, use "Berlin (Germany : East)" or "Berlin (Germany : West)," as appropriate. However, use "(Berlin, Germany)" as the qualifier in all cases when Berlin is being added to a corporate name heading (24.4C), unless the corporate names conflict

Denmark, Norway, and Sweden

The systems of administrative divisions of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden have changed several times over the years. The same names may have been/are used either at different times or concurrently by different levels of government within each country. At times, the same name has been/is used for both a jurisdiction and an area. The extent of the geographic are covered by each name may be the same, nearly the same, or very different. Nearly all cities no long exist as jurisdictions.

When different names have been/are used for jurisdictions or areas that are either the same or different in respect to geographic area covered, establish separate headings.

Example E

When the same names has been/is used, either at different times or concurrently, for more than one jurisdiction or area that are different in respect to geographic area covered, establish separate headings using appropriate qualifiers to identify each heading. Add the qualifier at the first instance, even if no conflict yet exists in the database.

Example F

Note: For subject cataloging, the heading appropriate for the geographic area covered in the work being cataloged is used. Only the latest name is used for jurisdictions whose territorial identity has remained essentially the same but whose name has changed. (Subject usage notes are added [following instructions in Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings, H 708] to name authority records for earlier names of jurisdictions that have undergone linear name changes to indicate that they are not valid for use as subjects.

See also:

23.4. Additions