Library of Congress subject headings may be assigned to newspaper records, as they are for other serials, according to the following:  CCM Module 15, Library of Congress Subject Headings, and the Subject Headings Manual.  Even though most newspapers fit the description of "general interest publications" (see CCM 15.2.8) they often contain significant amounts of information about particular places, topics, or national or ethnic groups.  For that reason many institutions assign LC subject headings to newspaper records, and use the form subdivision "Newspapers" ( FN 22) according to Subject Headings Manual H 1920.

33.17.1.  Topical newspapers (field 650)

For newspapers that contain current news of special topical interest assign headings of the type:

650 #0 $a [Topic] $z [Place, if appropriate] $v Newspapers.

650 #0 $a Labor movement $z United States $v Newspapers.

650 #0 $a Agriculture $z Arkansas $v Newspapers.

Topical newspapers also contain general information, which may comprise most of the publication.  A topical heading may be assigned if the topic represents at least 20% of the newspaper’s content.

33.17.2.  Subject Added Entry - geographic name (field 651)

Field 651 contains a geographic name subject heading that provides access to a newspaper's area of coverage.  Assign a heading of the type [Place] $v Newspapers if the newspaper contains substantive information about the place and/or activities occurring in it.  The choice of the type of place name (or geographic specificity) may vary due to local publishing practice, but the geographic name should represent at least 20% of the contents ( FN 23).

Currently, the second indicator value "0" is used in 651 fields for newspaper records if the place name is in the LC/NACO Authority File.  If the name does not appear in the authority file, indicator "4" is used ( FN 24).  (See also CCM 33.2.)  Construct and enter geographic headings according to SHM sections H 690-H 1055.  Always conclude field 651 with the form subdivision "Newspapers."

Although the geographic coverage of a newspaper is often the same as its place of publication, this is not always true.  Input a 651 field for places of publication found in the 260 and 752 fields only if they reflect the newspaper’s content.

130 0# $a Narodowiec (Cleveland, Ohio : Detroit ed.)

245 10 $a Narodowiec.

250 ## $a Detroit ed.

260 ## $a Cleveland, Ohio : $b S.A. Dangel

651 #0 $a Detroit (Mich.) $v Newspapers.

752 ## $a United States $b Ohio $c Cuyahoga $d Cleveland.

There are many local place names that are not established in the LC/NACO Authority File and often the cataloger must construct the authority record for the place name in the name authority file.  That name may have changed before, during, or after the dates of publication of the newspaper being described.  Because of the special relationship between a newspaper and its corresponding place name(s), it is important to include authorized forms of headings per AACR2 Chapter 23.  The cataloger may also need to consult state and local gazetteers to determine the authorized form if the name is not in the authority file.  Input only the current form of the place name in the 651 field.  An authority record cross reference can be included to provide access for an earlier form or spelling.

A wide variety of place name complications can be discovered while cataloging newspapers.  A typical complication involves spelling variations; or a village or city may have changed its name; also, many towns became neighborhoods, districts, or quarters within a neighboring city, and the name can be added as a subject heading per SHM H 720.  Input the current name as included in the 752 field.  (Neighborhood names are not currently recorded in 752 fields.)

Spelling Variations

130 0# $a North Carolina bulletin (Asheboro, N.C.)

245 10 $a North Carolina bulletin.

260 ## $a Ashborough, N.C. : $b E.B. Drake

362 0# $a Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 16, 1856)-

651 #0 $a Asheboro (N.C.) $v Newspapers.

752 ## $a United States $b North Carolina $c Randolph $d Asheboro.

Name Change

130 0# $a California star (Yerba Buena, Calif. : 1847)

245 14 $a The California star.

260 ## $a Yerba Buena [Calif.] : $b Samuel Brannan

362 0# $a Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 9, 1847)-v. 2, no. 23 (June 10, 1848).

651 #0 $a San Francisco (Calif.) $v Newspapers.

752 ## $a United States $b California $c San Francisco $d San Francisco.

Town Becomes a Neighborhood

130 0# $a Courier (Georgetown, Washington, D.C.)

245 14 $a The courier.

260 ## $a Georgetown [D.C.] :

362 0# $a Vol., 1 no. 1 (May 20, 1812)-

651 #0 $a Washington (D.C) $v Newspapers.

651 #0 $a Georgetown (Washington, D.C.) $v Newspapers.

752 ## $a United States $b District of Columbia $d Washington.

33.17.3.  Ethnic and national groups (field 650)

Field 650 also provides access to newspapers for national and ethnic groups.  The following definition is offered in SHM H 1920:

"An ethnic newspaper is primarily intended for a specific ethnic audience.  It may deal with a wide range of news topics of interest to the group and not be limited to any specific subject matter.  It generally focuses on events and activities occurring within the ethnic community on a local, national, and/or international level.  It may provide coverage of events in the home country as well as summaries of major world and national events."

Input field 650 for newspapers for ethnic groups in the U.S., according to the following model:

650 #0 $a ... Americans $z [Geographic subdivision(s)] $v Newspapers.

Examples of U.S. ethnic or national group subject headings:

650 #0 $a Polish Americans $z Illinois $z Chicago $v Newspapers.

650 #0 $a Afro-Americans $z Louisiana $v Newspapers.

Ethnic newspapers are not, of course, limited to the U.S.  For foreign ethnic papers use the following construction:

650 #0 $a [National group outside their native country] $z [Geographic subdivision] $v Newspapers.

245 00 $a Argentinos lietuviu balsas.

260 ## $a Bs. As. [Buenos Aires, Argentina] : $b Argentino Lietuviñu Balsas,

500 ## $a "La voz de los lituanos en la Argentina."

546 ## $a In Lithuanian with columns in Spanish.

651 #0 $a Buenos Aires (Argentina) $v Newspapers.

650 #0 $a Lithuanians $z Argentina $v Newspapers.

Keep in mind that ethnic groups and languages are not always the same:

546 ## $a In Persian.

650 #0 $a Irani Americans $z New York (State) $z New York $v Newspapers.

Assign the following types of headings to North American Indian newspapers:

650 #0 $a Hopi Indians $v Newspapers.

[Newspaper for tribe]

650 #0 $a Indians of North America $z Northeastern States $v Newspapers.

[Newspaper for a group of tribes]

650 #0 $a Indians of North America $v Newspapers.

[General newspaper for Indians throughout the U.S. or Canada]

See also:

Module 33.  Newspapers