a    Animation

c    Animation and live action

l     Live action

n    Not applicable

u    Unknown

z    Other


The technique code is a one-character alphabetic code that indicates the technique used in creating motion in motion pictures or videorecordings.


Code definitions

a    Animation.

Use code "a" for an item that consists totally or primarily of animation.  Animated films are produced using a variety of techniques including 1) cartoons; 2) graphic film (with paint or other media directly applied to the surface of the film); 3) model, clay, or puppet animation (where three-dimensional objects are photographed one frame at a time to achieve the effect of animation); and 4) other techniques.

008/34  a

520 ## Uses clay animation …

c    Animation and live action.

Use code "c" for an item that consists of a combination of animation and live action.  This code is used when there is some indication elsewhere in the cataloging record that there are animated sequences.  This information may appear in a Summary note (field 520) or in a Credits note (field 508).

008/34  c

520 ## Through optical imagery shows the beauty of traditional ballet. Live action and animation are used …

l     Live action.

Use code "l" for an item that consists of live action sequences.  If no information is found in the cataloging record and accompanying material that indicates otherwise, it is assumed that the motion picture or videorecording is live action.

008/34  l

245 00 Riley today $h [videorecording].

n    Not applicable.

Use code "n" if the item is not a motion picture or a videorecording.

u    Unknown.

Use code "u" if the technique for creating motion is unknown.

z    Other.

Use code "z" for an item that consists primarily of special techniques which are neither animation nor live action.  These include microcinematography, time lapse cinematography, trick cinematography, and other techniques.  Code "z" is also used for videorecordings and motion pictures which were made from still image slide sets or filmstrips without adding animation to the images.

008/34  z

520 ## Uses time-lapse photography to show actual cloud formation in the earth's atmosphere.

Related fields, etc.

508, 520

008/34  006/17  (MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data)

See also:


Section E.  MARC 21 Format for Serials as Applied Within CONSER

CONSER Editing Guide:  Contents