The Tracing and Reference Fields include:


4XX  See From Tracings


5XX  See Also From Tracings


Special subfields used with 4XX and 5XX fields


$i    Relationship information  (R)


$w  Control subfield  (NR)


/0   Special relationship


/1   Tracing use restriction


/2   Earlier form of heading


/3   Reference display


$4   Relationship  (R)


260, 360  Complex Subject References


663-666  Complex Name References

Definition and scope:

A cross reference leads from an unauthorized heading to an authorized heading (see reference) or from one authorized heading to another (see also reference).  Actual cross references are generally not carried explicitly in authority records.  Instead, variant form and related headings are carried in authority records in either tracing or reference note fields.  Cross reference displays may be generated by combining the contents of a tracing or a reference note field and the 1XX heading field of a record.

Guidelines for applying content designators:

Tracing Fields

Tracing Fields  (Definition)

Tracing Fields:  Simple Cross References  (Guidelines for using a tag related reference instruction phrase, subfield $i, and subfield $w in 4XX and 5XX fields, including examples of simple cross reference displays.)

Reference Note Fields

Reference Note Fields  (Definition)

Reference Note Fields:  Complex Cross References  (Guidelines for using a tag related reference instruction phrase with subfield $i in 2XX-3XX fields and subfield $a in 663-666 fields, including examples of complex cross reference displays.)

Input conventions:

The general input conventions for the 4XX and 5XX tracing fields are provided in the specific fields and in the X00-X85 General Information sections for each type of heading.  The input conventions for the reference note fields (260, 360, and 663-666) are provided in the description of each field.

Display Constants for Cross References  (260, 360, 4XX and 5XX fields)

Content designator history:

Subfield $w/0 - Print constant code  [redefined, 1997]  [CAN/MARC only]:  The following values were redefined:  g (Full name), h (Real name), and i (Real name (reputedly)).  The following values were made obsolete:  j (Name originally), k (Name in religion), l (Secular name), m (Stage name of), o (Variant name), p (Abbreviated name), q (Official name), r (Broader term), s (Narrower term), x (Print constant generated from tag value), and z (Text carried in subfield $i).

Subfield $w/0 - Special relationship

Code r - Relationship information in subfield $i or $4  [new, 2009]

Subfield $w/1 - Tracing use restriction

Code h - No reference structures  [new, 2007]

Subfield $w/2 - Earlier form of heading

Code x - Tracing is not the form of heading established under earlier cataloguing rules  [obsolete, 1997]  [CAN/MARC only]

Subfield $w/3 - Reference display

Code e - Note only generated from the tracing  [obsolete, 1997]  [CAN/MARC only]

Code i  - Invisible see from reference  [obsolete, 1997]  [CAN/MARC only]

Code x - Reference is generated from the tracing  [obsolete, 1997]  [CAN/MARC only]

Subfield $w/4 - Formerly established heading code  [obsolete, 1997]  [CAN/MARC only]:  The following values were defined:  d (Formerly accepted heading replaced by the heading in the 1XX field), s (Formerly accepted heading replaced by other headings, one of which is in the 1XX field), and x (Not a formerly accepted heading).

Subfield $i - Reference instruction phrase  [redefined, 2009]:  Subfield $i was renamed Relationship information and broadened to include relationship designations in addition to textual reference phrases.  The subfield was changed from Not repeatable (NR) to Repeatable (R).

Subfield $4 - Relationship code  [new, 2009]

Subfield $4 - Relationship code  [renamed, 2017] [redescribed, 2017]:  Subfield $4 was renamed to Relationship and redescribed to allow for the recording of relationship URIs in addition to MARC and non-MARC codes.

LC Guidelines:

 Tracings and References - 4XX Fields  [General Information]

Tracings and References - 5XX Fields  [General Information]

DCM Z1 Instructions:

 4XX  See From Tracings  [General Information]

5XX  See Also From Tracings  [General Information]

See also:

Variable Data Fields