Table of Contents:




Include in the definition of a conference in footnote 1 any named meeting that is entered directly under its own name and any named meeting that is entered subordinately to a heading for a corporate body.

When determining whether a conference has a name, cases arise that exhibit conflicting evidence insofar as two of the criteria in the definition of a corporate body are concerned:  capitalization and the definite article.  When the phrase is in a language that normally capitalizes each word of a name, even in running text, consider a capitalized phrase a name even if it is preceded by an indefinite article.  (This statement cannot apply to other languages.)

named:  In July of 1977 a Conference on Management Techniques in Libraries was held ...

unnamed:  Late last year the Retail Manufacturers Association of the Greater Houston area sponsored the national conference on losses by theft at the ...

Another important point to bear in mind when deciding whether a phrase is a name is that the phrase must include a word that connotes a meeting:  "symposium," "conference," "workshop," "colloquium," etc.  Note:  Some notable sequential conferences that lack such a term are exceptionally considered to be named, e.g., Darmstädter Gespräch.  In addition, phrases that combine acronyms or initialisms with the abbreviated or full form of the year are also considered to be named.

unnamed:  A symposium titled "Coal Geology and the Future," sponsored by ...

named:  GAGETECH '92

TOOLS Europe '92

AFPAC 2000

Generic-Term Names of Meetings:

When a generic-term name of a meeting designates a meeting of a body (as opposed to one merely sponsored by a body), the meeting may be considered as named, whether or not the generic term is strengthened by the name or abbreviation of the body.  For example, "annual meeting" in relation to the Human Factors Society is named whether it appears as:

Annual Meeting  or

HFS Annual Meeting  or

Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society.

N.B.  If such a meeting is one of two or more bodies, reject its designation as a name.

Sixteenth annual United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority/United States Federal Aviation Administration meeting

On the other hand, such generic-term designations for sponsored meetings are considered as named only if the body's name, the abbreviation of the body's name, or some other distinctive noun or adjective strengthen the generic term.

unnamed:  Symposium no. 95

named:  IAU Symposium no. 95

Record with lower-casing statements on the chief source that give the type of designation rejected as names according to this paragraph.

N.B.  Occasionally in this context the body is one of the types that typically does its work in sessions of its members (i.e., committees, commissions, or similar bodies, such as panels, task forces, or working groups).  Do not treat designations of the working sessions of these bodies as named, e.g., "Seventh meeting of the Coordinating Committee for the Regional English Language Centre."

If the meeting is named according to these criteria, determine the form of the name according to the appropriate provisions of chapter 24 (e.g., 24.7; 24.13, type 3; 24.13, type 6).

In general, consider named ad hoc events such as athletic contests, exhibitions, expeditions, fairs, and festivals to be corporate bodies. ( FN 1)  However, for art exhibitions, treat as corporate bodies only those that recur under the same name (e.g., Biennale di Venezia, Documenta).



In judging whether a work should be entered under the name of a corporate body, the cataloger makes two determinations, keeping in mind that in many instances information appearing only in the content of the work will have to be taken into account in order to ascertain if the second determination particularly applies (cf. 21.0B1, last sentence).

1.   Does the work emanate from the corporate body involved?  As indicated in footnote 2 to chapter 21, a work emanates from a corporate body if one of the following conditions applies:

a.   The corporate body has issued (published) the work.  Normally this means that the name of the corporate body appears in a position indicative of publication (e.g., for books, the imprint position) in the chief source of information or appears elsewhere as a formal publication statement.

b.   Corporate body A has caused the work to be issued (published).  Generally, the name of a different body, corporate body B, appears on the chief source of information (cf. above) or elsewhere as a formal publisher statement.  Body A has arranged for body B, named as publisher, to issue the work because body A has no facilities for publishing.  The arrangement between the two bodies is in some cases explicitly stated, e.g., "Published for the Historical Association by Routledge & Paul."  In other cases it must be inferred from evidence in the publication.  For example, the name of body A at head of title (the name of a commercial publisher appears in publisher position) commonly indicates that body A has caused the item to be issued (published), or, if the work appears in a series for which body A has editorial responsibility but is published by a commercial publisher, body A has caused the work to be issued (published).

c.   The corporate body, although the originator of the work, does not meet the test of issuing (publishing) in either category a. or b. above.  In this case, body B, which has no responsibility for content, issues (publishes) a work whose content originates with body A.  For example, a work is prepared by corporate body A which functions as a consulting body, commissioned by body B for that purpose; the completed work is published by body B.  In this case the content of the work originates with body A although it has no responsibility for publication of the work.  A similar situation occurs when a commercial publisher arranges to publish the card catalog of a library in book form.  The library has no real responsibility for publication; it has only given permission to the commercial publisher to undertake publication.  However, since the content of the catalog has been prepared by the library’s cataloging staff, the content of the publication originates with the library.  In all those cases, consider that "originates with" is equivalent to "emanates from."

d.   If there is doubt that the work emanates from the corporate body, assume that the corporate body is involved with the work.

2.   Does the work fall into one or more of the categories listed in 21.1B2?  In answering this question, the following points should be kept in mind:

a.   Judge that a work falls into a particular category if that category accounts for the predominant content, or the purpose, of the work.  That is, there may be some material that does not fall into one of the categories; that material may be ignored for the purpose of making the determination.  For example, a work may contain factual data to support a statement of official position, when the official position is the chief purpose of the work.

b.   If there is any doubt as to whether a work falls into one or more of the categories, ignore the involvement of a corporate body in determining the main entry heading and enter it either under personal author or title as appropriate.  Make an added entry for the corporate body, however, even if not prominently named.

3.   There is no rule comparable to AACR1 rule 17A-B for making a determination of whether the main entry heading for a work is to be under the name of a person or of a corporate body.  When a work emanating from a corporate body bears the name of one or more persons as authors, it is necessary, first of all, to determine if the main entry heading is the name of the corporate body according to the provisions of 21.1B2.  If the work does not meet the two conditions imposed by 21.1B2 or if there is doubt that it does, it is necessary next to determine if the work may be entered under the heading for a person named, according to the provisions of the appropriate rule, e.g., 21.4A, 21.6.  If entry under the name of a person is not permitted, by default the main entry is under title (21.1C1c).  Make an added entry under the heading for the corporate body if the main entry is under the name of a person or under title.

Category A:

To belong to this category the work must deal with the body itself.

The words "administrative nature" indicate works dealing with the management or conduct of the affairs of the body itself, including works that describe the activities of the body either in general terms or for a particular period of time, e.g., minutes of meetings, reports of activities for a particular period.

Normally, such works are intended in the first instance for internal use, although they may be available to others.  Some, particularly reports of activities, progress, etc., may be required by superior or related bodies.  Other works, particularly general descriptions of objectives or activities, may be generally available for purposes of public relations.

"Internal policy" is limited to policies formulated for the conduct of the affairs of the body itself.  For works concerned with policies relating to topics of wider concern to a body, see Category C.

In the case of religious denominations and local churches, Category A includes works that deal with the organization and government of the denomination or local church, e.g., The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church.

Category C:

This category is best characterized by saying that it deals with those works that present official statements of position of a body on matters other than the affairs of the body itself.  Use judgment in applying the category.

Category D:

This category may not be applied to any type of body other than those stated.  Note the emphasis upon the collective aspect of the work.  It must deal with the activities of many persons involved in a corporate body covered by the category, not with the activities of a single person.

Amendments 2001 to AACR2 revised Category D of rule 21.1B2 to provide main entry for a Category D work under the heading for the name of a conference, expedition, or event if the name appears anywhere on the item being cataloged.  Previously, main entry for a Category D work was under the heading for the name of the conference, expedition, or event when the name appeared prominently on the item.

LC practice:  Effective December 2001, enter a work covered by Category D under the heading for the name of a conference, expedition, or event if the name appears anywhere in the item being cataloged.  (Note:  For the period January 1981-July 1991, LC entered a Category D work under the heading for the name of the conference, etc., when the name appeared prominently on the item.  For the period August 1991-November 2001, LC entered a Category D work under the heading for the name of the conference, etc., when the name appeared on the chief source.  Existing records are generally not changed to reflect current policy.)

Category E:

This category emphasizes that the responsibility of a performing group must go beyond "mere performance, execution, etc."  This means that the group must be responsible to a major degree for the artistic content of the work being performed.  A typical example is an acting group that performs by means of improvisation.  The group collectively "plans" the drama, that is, determines the broad outline of the plot, the nature of the characters, etc., in the absence of a written dialogue.  The development of the drama proceeds entirely on the basis of improvised dialogue.  The performance is recorded, and it is the recording that is being cataloged.

Category F:

Use judgment in deciding whether the corporate body is the producer of the cartographic work, i.e., take into account such factors as the nature of the body and its cartographic output as well as any special information about the cartography of the particular work.

Category G:

LC/NACO practice:  Add as new category in AACR2

g.   named individual works of art by two or more artists acting as a corporate body.

Art Catalogs:

Categories A and D of rule 21.1B2 include wording that justifies exhibitions as main entry headings.  Note, however, that there are very few exhibitions that are establishable as corporate bodies (cf. LCRI 21.1B1).

The remainder of this interpretation is applicable to the remaining cases (the majority) in which the exhibition is not establishable, but consideration of a corporate main entry heading is still necessary in view of the presence of the name of a museum or other body related to the event.

Apply 21.1B2a to the catalog of an exhibition of the works of two or more artists if it meets both of the following conditions:

1.   It emanates from a corporate body.

2.   All the works listed are held by the corporate body from which the catalog emanates.

245 10 $a Henry Moore to Gilbert & George : $b modern British art from the Tate Gallery : Palais des beaux-arts, Brussels, 28 September-17 November 1973.

260 ## $a London : $b Tate Gallery Publications Dept.

Apply 21.1B2a to a catalog of the works of two or more artists that is not related to an exhibition if it meets both of the following conditions:

1.   It emanates from a corporate body.

2.   All the works listed are held by the corporate body from which the catalog emanates.

245 10 $a Catalogue of the Italian paintings before 1800 / $c by Peter Tomory.

260 ## $a Sarasota, Fla. : $b John & Mabel Ringling Museum of Art

Note that the presence of reproductions of the artists' works or reproductions and text about the artists or the artists' works is not a factor in choosing the main entry for either type of catalog.

If 21.1B2a cannot be applied, enter the catalog under the heading for the person who prepared the catalog or under title, as appropriate.

For the catalog (exhibition or other) of the works of a single artist, apply LCRI 21.17B.

Auction and Sales Catalogs:

LC practice:  Enter an auction catalog or a sales catalog of an art dealer, gallery, etc., under the heading for the dealer, gallery, etc., according to category A of 21.1B2 ("its resources (e.g., catalogues, inventories)") although the dealer, gallery, etc., may have only temporary custody of the contents represented in the catalog.  For monographs, make an added entry under the heading for the person or body from whom the contents of the catalog emanated if the person or body is named in the chief source.  (If the catalog is devoted to the works of a single artist and contains the reproductions of the artist's works, apply LCRI 21.17B.)

Consultants' Reports:

Enter a work prepared by a consultant under the heading for the body that hired the consultant if the hiring body takes the consultant's document and adopts it in some clear way that fits a category of 21.1B2, Category C being the most likely possibility.  One of the clearest ways for the hiring body to do this is for it to make explicit recommendations or policy statements of its own superimposed on the consultant's material (no matter that the original material is copied, even if verbatim).  Another clear way is for the hiring body to represent as its very own the recommendations that originated with the consultant--perhaps even without adding any new material.

If the hiring body does not take the stand described above, and simply passes on the material without position statements of its own, then enter the work under the heading for the consultant if this is a person or persons not constituting a corporate body, i.e., apply 21.4A or 21.6.  If the consultant is a corporate body, test the case under 21.1B2 in relation to the consultant in the same way as was done in relation to the hiring body.  If the work simply reports on a subject without making the consultant's own definite recommendations, it is most likely that the work will not fit any of the categories of 21.1B2, and, therefore, main entry would be under title.  If the work instead contains the policy statements or definite recommendations of the consultant, then main entry will probably be under the heading for the consultant.

Subordinate Units:

When a work falling into one or more of the categories given in 21.1B2 involves a parent body and one of its subordinate units (with the subordinate unit responsible only for the preparation of the contents of the work), enter the work under the heading for the parent body.  Make an added entry under the heading for the subordinate unit if named prominently.

See also:

21.1.  General Rule