When the name of an individual performer appears in conjunction with the name of a performing group, ordinarily do not consider the person's name to be part of the name of the group, in the absence of evidence to the contrary.

On item:  J.D. Crowe and the New South

Corporate heading:  110  2#  $a New South (Musical group)

On item:  Artie Shaw and his orchestra

No corporate heading (body is unnamed; cf. 21.1B1)

See also LCRI 21.23C, LCRI 21.29D

Ambiguous Entities:

Treat the ambiguous entities listed below as general corporate bodies and establish them under the provisions of chapter 24, AACR2, tagging them as X10 .

Airplanes, Named

Ecological stations

Port authorities





Funeral homes, mortuaries


Aquariums, Public

Halfway houses

Research stations




Artificial satellites





School districts

Biological stations


Service stations

Boards of trade (Chambers of commerce)



Botanical gardens

Night clubs



Nursing homes

Space vehicles

Chambers of commerce

Old age homes

Stores, Retail

Concentration camps

Opera houses

Studies (Research projects)

Concert halls


Tribes (as legal entities only)

Country clubs




Plans (Programs)

Zoological gardens

Dance halls



Special Letter/Symbol:

If the form of name selected as the heading includes a Greek letter or a letter or symbol used to indicate a trademark, a patent, copyright, etc., follow the guidelines in LCRI 1.0E.


These guidelines appear also in LCRI 1.0C section Corporate Name Heading Access Points, Including Meetings, in Name Authority and Bibliographic Records.

1. Quotation marks. If the form of name selected as the heading includes quotation marks around an element or elements of the name, retain them (cf. example in rule 24.7B4). Use American-style double quotation marks in the heading instead of other forms of quotation marks.

2. Initials. If the form of name selected as the heading consists of or contains initials, regularize the spacing and put one space after an initial that is followed by a word or other element that is not an initial and no space after an initial that is followed by another initial consisting of one letter.

source: F&H Denby

heading: 110 2# $a F & H Denby

source: U.S.D.A. Symposium . . .

heading: 111 2# $a U.S.D.A. Symposium . . .

source: B B C Symphony . . .

heading: 110 2# $a BBC Symphony . . .

3. Abbreviations. Precede or follow abbreviations consisting of two or more letters with a space, e.g., "Gauley Bridge (W. Va.)," "Ph. D. Associates." If the form of name selected as the heading includes an abbreviation, retain in the heading the abbreviation as found.

source: Dirección de la Energía//Div. Estadística//Secc.Información

heading: 110 1# $a Buenos Aires (Argentina : Province). $b Dirección de la Energía. $b Div. Estadística. $b Secc.Información

4. Place name at end. If the form of name selected as the heading includes a place name at the end and the place is enclosed within parentheses or is preceded by a comma-space, retain in the heading the punctuation as found.

110 2# $a California State University, Northridge

5. Numerical or alphabetical designation. When the name of a body consists of both a numerical or alphabetical designation and words indicating the body's function, include both in the heading for the body. Separate the two parts with a dash (two hyphens).

source: Abteilung V - Vermessungswesen

heading: 110 2# $a [Parent body]. $b Abteilung V--Vermessungswesen

source: Social and Economic Sciences (Section K)

heading: 110 2# $a [Parent body]. $b Social and Economic Sciences--Section K

source: Sub-task Force I, Gas Dissolved in Water

heading: 110 2# $a [Parent body]. $b Sub-task Force I--Gas Dissolved in Water

6. Dash or hyphen. If the form of name selected as the heading includes a dash or a hyphen that sets off a data element (usually a place name), regularize the punctuation by using a dash (two hyphens) without spacing on either side.

source: University of Nebraska--Lincoln

heading: 110 2# $a University of Nebraska--Lincoln

source: Centro abruzzese di ricerche storiche - Teramo

heading: 110 2# $a Centro abruzzese di ricerche storiche--Teramo

7. Year in conference name. If the form of name of a conference selected as the heading contains an abbreviated or full form of a year, regularize the spacing by insuring that one space precedes the year regardless of the configuration of the year (e.g., use of an apostrophe or other character as a substitute for a portion of the year; the full form of a year combined with another element without spacing).

source: CDS2000

heading: 111 2# $aCDS 2000 . . .

source: CP 2000

heading: 111 2# $aCP 2000 . . .

source: CP98

heading: 111 2# $aCP 98 . . .

source: ECOOP'99 SCM-9 Symposium

heading: 111 2# $aECOOP '99 SCM-9 Symposium . . .

8. Series of words. Add a comma to a series of words appearing in an English-language name except before an ampersand. Exceptions:

a. For British headings, follow the punctuation in the publication, which normally will not include a comma before the conjunction in the series of words, e.g.,

110 1# $a Great Britain. $b Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food

not 110 1# $a Great Britain. $b Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food

b. For Canadian headings, follow the punctuation provided by the National Library of Canada.

Note: Headings originally established before January 1981 that are in accord with current policy except for punctuating words in series were coded "AACR2" before September 1982. Continue to use the existing form of the established heading in post-August 1982 cataloging. (Headings other than those from the National Library of Canada or British or Irish headings coded after August 1982 will be in accord with AACR2 and current LC policy.)

Canadian Headings:

If the National Library of Canada (NLC) form differs from LC/AACR2 form for capitalization, diacritics, or punctuation, follow NLC.

If a corporate name in French includes the diphthong image\DIPHTHNG.gif, which appears in the NLC form as separate letters, use the NLC form in the heading.

Although NLC practice is to establish all corporate names in both English and French, LC practice is to use English whenever possible. Exception: Generally establish Québec corporate names in French.

If the NLC French-language heading is used and that heading has a qualifying term in French, change the term to the English term used in the NLC English-language equivalent heading.

NLC: CHAU-TV (Station de télévision : Carleton, Québec)

NLC equivalent: CHAU-TV (Television station : Carleton, Quebec)

heading: 110 2# $a CHAU-TV (Television station : Carleton, Québec)

If an NLC corporate heading contains a geographic qualifier, use the LC-established form of the geographic name as the qualifier.

NLC: Douglas Hospital (Verdun, Quebec)

heading: 110 2# $a Douglas Hospital (Verdun, Québec)

"AACR2 Compatible" Headings:

1. General. All headings newly coded after August 1982 will be in accord with AACR2 and current policy and will be designated "AACR2" (with two exceptions). A heading already coded "AACR2 compatible" will continue to be used in its existing form in post-August 1982 cataloging. The two situations in which a newly coded heading will be coded "AACR2 compatible" are

a. The heading is for a body that is entered subordinately to another body whose heading has already been coded "AACR2 compatible."

b. The heading is for a uniform title entered under a name heading that has already been coded "AACR2 compatible."

Before September 1982, headings were coded "AACR2 compatible" if they had been established before 1981 and fell into one or more of the categories listed below. Also coded "AACR2 compatible" were headings established after 1980 for bodies that were entered subordinately to bodies whose headings had already been coded "AACR2 compatible" and headings for uniform titles entered under name headings that had already been coded "AACR2 compatible."

2. Categories coded "AACR2 compatible." The categories of headings that were coded "AACR2 compatible" were as follows:

a. Quotation marks. The existing heading lacked quotation marks even though the body’s predominant usage showed quotation marks around one or more elements.

Compatible heading: 110 2# $a Istituto tecnico C. Gemmellaro di Catani

(AACR2 form: Istituto tecnico "C. Gemmellaro" di Catani)

b. Acronyms. The existing heading contained an acronym in lower-cased letters after an initial capital letter even though body’s predominant usage showed the acronym all in capital letters.

Compatible heading: 110 2# $a Amacom

(AACR2 form: AMACOM (Organization))

Note: If the body was famous, the heading was re-established in its AACR2 form.

c. Terms of incorporation:

1. The existing heading contained a term of incorporation that did not agree with AACR2 capitalization.

Compatible heading: 110 2# $a Art Nouveau, inc.

(AACR2 form: Art Nouveau, Inc.)

2. The existing heading contained a term of incorporation that would not be retained under AACR2.

Compatible heading: 110 2# $a Press Association, ltd.

(AACR2 form: Press Association)

Compatible heading: 110 2# $a Schweizerisches Ost-Institut, A.G.

(AACR2 form: Schweizerisches Ost-Institut)

3. The existing heading lacked a term of incorporation that would be included under AACR2.

Compatible heading: 110 2# $a Daumier Prints

(AACR2 form: Daumier Prints Inc.)

d. Hierarchy. The existing heading for a Chinese, Japanese, or Korean corporate body contained more hierarchy than AACR2 would permit.


(AACR2 form: Japan. Keijikyoku)


Before August 1996, airports were established as geographic names under the provisions of chapter 23 AACR2, tagged X51 . After July 1996, establish airports under the provisions of chapter 24, AACR2, tagged X10 . If the name of the airport does not include the name of the place it serves, add the appropriate local place name qualifier. Do not make a reference through the local place in which the airport is located.

LC practice: Headings for airports existing in the name authority and bibliographic databases will be revised as a project by the Cataloging Policy and Support Office (CPSO), but revise existing headings needed in current cataloging as encountered.

110 2# $a Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport

110 2# $a Heathrow Airport (London, England)


110 2# $a Davis Airport (Luzerne County, Pa.)

110 2# $a Davis Airport (Montgomery County, Md.)


Before August 1996 cemeteries were established either as name or subject headings, tagged X51 . After July 1996 establish all cemeteries as name headings, tagged X10 .

LC practice: Headings for cemeteries existing in the subject authority file will be converted to name headings as a project by CPSO. CPSO will also revise existing name authority and bibliographic records as a project, but revise existing headings needed in current cataloging as encountered.

Establish cemeteries according to the provisions of chapter 24, AACR2. Qualify the name of the cemetery with the name of the local geographic place in which it is located, i.e., city, county, etc., even if the cemetery is national, state, provincial, etc., in character. (Revise existing headings that do not reflect this policy when such headings are needed in current cataloging.) Do not make a reference through the place in which the cemetery is located.

110 2# $a National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific (Honolulu, Hawaii)

110 2# $a Cimetière de Champeaux (Montmorency, France)

110 2# $a McMillan Cemetery (Marshall County, Okla.)

110 2# $a Cmentarz Ewangelicko-Augsburski w Warszawie (Warsaw, Poland)

110 2# $a Necrópolis Cristóbal Colón (Havana, Cuba)

Concentration Camps:

Before August 1996, concentration camps were established either as name or subject headings, tagged X51 . After July 1996, establish all concentration camps as name headings, tagged X10 .

Establish concentration camps according to the provisions of chapter 24, AACR2. Construct headings based upon information found on items issued by the body or information found in authoritative reference sources. Do not routinely construct the name of a concentration camp to reflect solely the local place name. If the form of the heading cannot be determined from reference sources, use the form as found in the item being cataloged. Qualify the heading for a concentration camp that consists solely of the name of a place with "(Concentration camp)." (Revise existing headings and associated bibliographic records that do not reflect this policy when such headings are needed in current cataloging. Do not retain the post-1980, pre-August 1996 heading as a reference, unless it is a valid AACR2 reference.) Do not make a reference through the local place in which the concentration camp is located.

LC practice: Convert headings for concentration camps existing in the subject authority file to name headings as needed. In converting subject authority records to name authority records, copy the subject authority record into the name authority file. Add the control number of the subject authority record as a 010 $z; revise the form of heading and the tagging; evaluate existing references (revise or delete), add additional references as appropriate, delete any 550 fields ( FN 1); retain any 670 field(s) as is (including "Work cat." preceding the citation), add a 670 field that justifies the heading chosen (item being cataloged or LC database citation); and change FFD 8 to value n, code FFD 12 as appropriate, and add the cataloger's code in FFD 25. Submit a proposal to delete the record from the subject authority file to the Subject Headings Editorial Team, Cataloging Policy and Support Office in accordance with procedures in Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings H193, section 11, and H193.5. (NACO libraries: Submit the proposal to Cooperative Cataloging Team, Regional and Cooperative Cataloging Division.)

110 2# $a Auschwitz (Concentration camp)

410 2# $a Konzentrationslager Auschwitz

410 2# $a KL Auschwitz

110 2# $a Konsentrasiekamp te Bethulie

410 2# $a Bethulie (Concentration camp)


Plans, Programs, and Projects:

Treat plans, programs, and projects as corporate bodies whether or not they have a staff. Do not consider that headings for entities with these words in their names need the addition of a qualifier that conveys the idea of a corporate body (cf. 24.4B).


The purpose of this section is to provide guidance in the formulation of headings for printers for use in the cataloging of rare materials. In the context of rare materials, the word "printer" also means "publisher," "bookseller," "associated name," etc.

Establish names of printers in the form found in modern reference sources in the language of the country in which the printer is located when that varies from the chief source of information in the item being cataloged, according to the principle for form of pre-1801 names (LCRI 22.1B) and persons not known primarily as an author (AACR2 22.1B). If a corporate name is not clearly indicative of a corporate body, add the qualifier "Printer," "Bookseller," "Firm," etc., as appropriate (cf. LCRI 24.4B). Make see references from unused variant forms and see also references from the established forms of related persons or corporate bodies.

Establish a firm as a corporate body, in direct order.

source: Ex Officina Elzeviriana

heading: 110 2# $a Officina Elzeviriana

source: Viduae & haeredum Ioannis Stelsii

heading: 110 2# $a Vidua & Haeredes Ioannis Stelsii

Heirs, Assigns, Estate. Establish phrases denoting the heirs or estate of a printer in direct order in the nominative case with a see also reference from the established form of the printer's name.


Officina, etc.


Partnerships, etc.:

1. If there is clear evidence that the partnership is a formally established, stable entity, establish the phrase as a corporate body with a qualifier as appropriate. Make see also references from the headings for the partners.


2. In the absence of clear evidence that the relationship is a formal or legal partnership, do not establish as a corporate body. Rather, establish the names of the various persons, and any related corporate body, separately. On a specific bibliographic record, make added entries as indicated in the imprint and colophon of the item being cataloged.


24.1B. Romanization

See also:

24. Headings for Corporate Bodies