AACR2 defines a facsimile as "A reproduction that has as its chief purpose to simulate the physical appearance of the original work as well as to provide an exact replica of the text." (1)

A somewhat broader criteria for simulation of physical appearance and replication of content is used for maps and other cartographic items. Under this criteria, a "facsimile" reproduction may differ from the original in some bibliographic elements (e.g., scale, coloration, type of paper, etc.). Also, additions, changes, or modifications of bibliographic details (e.g., title, publication details, etc.) do not preclude treatment as a facsimile. Some types of cartographic items are, however, excluded from treatment as facsimiles.

Revisions or modifications based on another cartographic item, as well as amendments or modifications of the cartographic or textual content of an original (e.g., illustrations, advertisements, etc. added in the margins) other than reduction, enlargement, or changes in coloration, preclude treatment as a facsimile.

New maps produces "in the style of" a former century but are not reproductions of any original are not treated as facsimiles.

"Reprints" or reproductions produced from original plates after an extensive period of time are treated as macro-reproductions using the "double date" convention in the call number.

A tracing is excluded from treatment as a facsimile,. but such an item is extensive period of time are treated as macro-reproductions using the "double date" convention in the call number.

The distinction between a facsimile and a photocopy reproduced by direct photographic processes in multiple copies for general sale and distribution is the utilization of an intermediate step (e.g., printing) in the reproduction of the facsimile.

Primary data relating solely to the facsimile and data common to both the reproduction and the original are transcribed as part of the body while data pertaining only to the original item is transcribed in the note area, normally in a formal "original version" note (tag 534).

When the relationship between the bibliographic data from the facsimile and the original is not evident from examining the facsimile and neither the original item not a description is readily available, consider the information to be common to both.

Do not perform special searches to locate an original cartographic item or information relating to the original. However, if information relating to the original is on the facsimile, in accompanying material, or, encountered during normal cataloging procedures, include the information in the bibliographic description in an "original version" note (tag 534).


Choice of Entry


Statement of Responsibility

Edition Statement

Mathematical Data Area

Publication, Distribution, Etc. Area

Physical Description Area

Series Area


Series Statements

Publication Information

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