Uniform titles may be qualified by place of publication, corporate body, date of publication, frequency, edition statement or any other term that sufficiently distinguishes one serial from another.  The choice of qualifier is perhaps the most disputed aspect of the uniform title.  Those wishing to provide a meaningful uniform title would prefer to see corporate body used more often so that the serial can be identified from the uniform title.  Using the corporate body, however, defeats much of the purpose of entry under title since a change in the body used as a qualifier requires a new record.  (Remember that the uniform title does not have to identify the serial, only to distinguish it from others with the same title.)

With the exception of generic titles entered under title (which are qualified by corporate body), there is generally no preferred order of qualifiers.  A qualifier that differentiates one serial from another is preferable.  It is up to the cataloger to determine the most appropriate qualifier for the case in hand.  For exceptions to this, see the modules on newspapers and computer file serials (Modules 30, 31, 33).

5.3.1.  Place of publication

The "place" given is generally a local place, i.e., a city.  If the city is unknown or not appropriate, a higher jurisdiction may be given.  The place is given as established in the name authority file, except that the higher jurisdiction is separated from the local place by a comma and the parentheses are omitted (AACR2 23.4A1).

Authority record:  Helsinki (Finland)

Uniform title:       Folk & country (Helsinki, Finland)

The place given is the place of publication of the earliest issue and is, therefore, the place given in field 260 .  It does not matter if the place or its name has changed on later issues, or if the country of publication code does not reflect the place given in the uniform title qualifier.  A note may be given to explain such discrepancies.

5.3.2.  Corporate body

Use a corporate body as a qualifier when the title proper consists solely of very general words that indicate the type of publication and/or periodicity.

130 0# $a Newsletter (Judo Ontario)

130 0# $a Information digest (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission)

130 0# $a Monthly bulletin (Canadian Conference of the Arts)

A corporate body may also be used when the place has already been used as a qualifier for another serial or it is known that there is more than one serial with the same title published in the same place.

Record being created:

130 0# $a Network (National Congress for Men (U.S.))

260 ## $a Washington, D.C. ...

Existing record:

110 1# $a United States. $b Small Business Administration.

245 10 $a Network.

260 ## $a Washington, D.C. ...

When there is more than one body associated with the work, use the issuing body as qualifier rather than the publisher.  If there is more than one body equally responsible for issuing the serial, use the one that appears first.

Give the corporate body in the qualifier exactly as it is found in the name authority record or as it would be established as a heading.  If the name is qualified, retain the parentheses.

130 0# $a Journal (Choral Conductors Guild (Calif.))

130 0# $a Boletín (IDEA (Organization : Puno, Puno, Peru))

5.3.3.  Dates

Dates may be used alone or with the place or corporate body.  As a rule, give the date with the place or corporate body when more than one qualifier is needed to make the uniform title unique.

245 00 $a Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association

[published 1990-1992]

continued by:

245 00 $a Air & waste

[published 1993-1994]

continued by:

130 0# $a Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)

[published 1995- ]

Note that the date given is the publishing date (field 260 $c), not the chronological designation.  When basing the description on a later issue and the beginning date of publication is unknown, use the publication date or assumed publication date of the issue upon which the description is based.

110 1# $a Costa Rica. $b Ministerio de Gobernación y Policía.

240 10 $a Informe de labores (1988)

245 10 $a Informe de labores.

260 ## $a ..., $c 1988-

362 0# $a 1987/1988-

130 0# $a Denmark (United States.  Embassy (Denmark) : 1987)

260 ## $a ..., {no $c}

500 ## $a Description based on: Dec. 1987; title from cover.

5.3.4.  Physical medium

When the medium is the most appropriate qualifier prefer a more specific to a general term.  For electronic resources, "online" and "CD-ROM" are commonly used as qualifiers, but not "electronic resource" which is the GMD.  "Generally avoid use of the terms "print" and "text" as qualifiers because they are vague and there is not a consensus as to their appropriate use."  (See LCRI 25.5B .)

130 0# $a Migration news (Davis, Calif. : Online)

130 0# $a Biography and genealogy master index (CD-ROM)

130 0# $a Biografi til Norges historie (Microfiche)

Uniform titles are not created to differentiate different physical formats of a serial when one is a republication of the other (e.g., a microfilm reproduction, a reprint).

CONSER treats most electronic serials as simultaneous versions rather than electronic reproductions.  A uniform title qualified by the physical medium is used if the online and print versions conflict.  (See CCM 31.5.)

245 00 $a Stroke.

[print version]

130 0# $a Stroke (Online)

245 10 $a Stroke $h [electronic resource].

5.3.5.  Other qualifiers

Besides the choices mentioned above, any term or combination of terms may be used.  Most commonly used are the edition statement, frequency, and physical medium (see CCM 5.2.4.).

Use the edition statement when a serial that is issued in editions has identical titles.  Give the edition statement exactly as it appears in field 250 .  Note that the presence of an edition statement does not automatically require a uniform title (see also Module 9).

130 0# $a Graphic arts blue book (Southeastern ed.)

130 0# $a Graphic arts blue book (Midwestern ed.)

130 0# $a Graphic arts blue book (Delaware Valley-Ohio ed.)

Use the frequency when publications that have the same title and issuing body are published in different frequencies.

130 0# $a Precipitation in the Tennessee River Basin (Annual)

130 0# $a Precipitation in the Tennessee River Basin (Monthly)

Other qualifying terms may indicate the physical description, the presence of illustrations, and so forth.

110 2# $a South Carolina Public Service Authority.

240 10 $a Annual report (Illustrated ed.)

245 10 $a Annual report.

110 2# $a South Carolina Public Service Authority.

245 10 $a Annual report.

5.3.6.  Multiple qualifiers

If necessary, multiple qualifiers may be combined in addition to the place/date or corporate body/date combinations mentioned above.  Separate the qualifiers by a space, colon, space.  Such combinations may include the place or corporate body and either the edition statement, frequency, physical medium, or any other term that distinguishes the two serials.

130 0# $a Bulletin de statistique (Banque du Zaïre : quarterly)

[The title is generic and requires qualification by body; it also conflicts with a pre-AACR2 record for a serial entered under title but issued by the same body that appears to be annual.]

5.3.7.  Examples of uniform titles created according to LCRI 25.5B

The following examples are taken from the OCLC database and are not necessarily complete listings but show the variety of qualifiers and the use of different types of qualifiers for the same title.  When looking at online records, keep in mind that the rule interpretation has changed many times over the years and that older records may reflect earlier guidelines.

Title:  Middle East review

Middle East review (Lincolnwood, Ill.)

Middle East review (New York, N.Y.)

Middle East review (Saffron Walden, England)

Title:  Market research report

Market research report (American Plywood Association.  Marketing Group)

Market research report (Helsinki, Finland)

Market research report (Lakeland, Fla.)

Title:  In focus

In focus (Bulawayo, Zimbabwe)

In focus (Fayetteville, Ark.)

In focus (Indianapolis, Ind.)

In focus (Indianapolis, Ind. : 1989)

In focus (New York, N.Y.)

In focus (San Diego, Calif.)

In focus (Santa Monica, Calif.)

In focus (St. Louis, Mo.)

In focus (Toronto, Ont.)

Title:  Network

Network (Bristol, England)

Network (Calgary, Alta.)

Network (Fédération nationale des enseignants et enseignantes du Québec.  Women's Network)

Network (Fondation canadienne du Parkinson)

Network (Friends of Canadian Broadcasting)

Network (Fur Institute of Canada)

Network (Garden City, N.Y.)

Network (Harare, Zimbabwe)

Network (Institut de la fourrure du Canada)

Network (National Congress for Men (U.S.))

Network (London, England : 1985)

Network (Newark, N.J.)

Network (Pierrefonds, Québec)

Network (Southeast Mental Network, Inc.)

Network (Toronto, Ont. : 1987)

See also:

Module 5.  Uniform Titles (Fields 130 and 240)