#    None of the following

a    Microfilm

b    Microfiche

c    Microopaque

d    Large print

e    Newspaper format

f     Braille

o    Online

q    Direct electronic

s     Electronic (online, direct access not specified)


The form of original item specifies the physical form in which the serial is originally published.  If the original item is in print, this byte is left blank.

DO NOT use codes "o," "q," and "s" when applying the CONSER single record option and noting the electronic version on the record for a printed serial.  Do not use these codes for  items that do not require the use of a computer (e.g., music compact discs and videodiscs).


CONSER practice for coding this byte is determined by two factors:  1) the format, and 2) whether the serial is a reproduction or a version.  Aside from newspapers, the most common forms or format are microform (microfilm or microfiche), online, and electronic.


Most microforms, particularly microfilm, are reproductions of printed serials.  Others, more often microfiche, are issued as original microforms.


When a microform is a reproduction of a printed or other format serial, code 008/22 as blank for print or other appropriate code.

In record for microfilm reproduction

008/22 (Orig) = #

008/23 (Form) = a

In record for print original

008/22 (Orig) = #

008/23 (Form) = #

Original microforms:

In record for microform

008/22 (Orig) = b

008/23 (Form) = b

Electronic resources

CONSER practice for electronic resources differs somewhat from that for microforms because the distinctions between original and reproduction are less clear.  With electronic resources, a serial may be produced originally in a digital form from which a print version and an electronic version are both created.  For this reason, the use of "reproduction" is limited to cases where it is very clear that an electronic serial is a reproduction according to the provisions of LCRI 1.11a.  For other electronic serials for which a separate record is created, the form of item is coded online or direct electronic; original form of item is coded as electronic.


Original form:  print

Form of item:  electronic

008/22 (Orig) = #

008/23 (Form) = s

Simultaneous versions (all others:  print version and online versions issued simultaneously):

Original form:  print

Form of item:  online

008/22 (Orig) = s

008/23 (Form) = o

Difficult to determine form originally published

When it is difficult to determine the form originally published, code as follows:

Microform, braille, etc.:  consider the first item entered in the database to be the original form.

Original version unknown:

Form of first item in database:  large print

008/22 (Orig) = d

008/23 (Form) = d

Other form received:  braille

008/22 (Orig) = d

008/23 (Form) = f

Using the same code

When the item being cataloged is the original form of issue (codes #, d, f), code both 008/22 and 008/23 for the form of material.  Both elements will, thus, contain the same code.

Original form:  microfiche

Form of item:  microfiche

008/22 (Orig) = b

008/23 (Form) = b

Original form:  electronic

Form of item:  electronic

008/22 (Orig) = s

008/23 (Form) = s

Create a new record when the physical form in which a serial is issued changes (e.g., a serial issued in print changes to a microfiche or electronic format and is no longer issued in a printed version).  Code the new record for the new physical format in 008/22.

Code definitions

NOTE:  See MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data (008/22  006/05) for code definitions not given below.

o    Online.

Code "o" indicates that the resource is accessed by means of hardware and software connections to a communications network.

q    Direct electronic.

Code "q" indicates that the resource is stored on a directly accessible tangible recording medium, e.g. disc, tape, playaway device, flashdrive, portable hard drive, etc.

s    Electronic.

Code "s" indicates that the item is intended for manipulation by a computer.  It may reside in a carrier accessed either directly or remotely.  It may require use of peripheral devices attached to the computer (e.g., a CD-ROM player).


Character position 008/22 was formerly called the "Physical medium code."  When a code was given in 008/22, the companion code for "Form of reproduction" (008/23) was blank.  Prior to 2002, code "s" was used for all electronic serials because CONSER did not distinguish between electronic reproductions and simultaneous versions.

CONSER maintenance

The code for 008/22 does not need to be changed in existing records unless it is known that the original form was other than normal print (e.g., the item is a large print reproduction; the original is microfiche).  Exception:  in records for electronic resources that are not reproductions, add code "s".  In all cases, the code for 008/22 should only be changed when the record is being reviewed for authentication or updated to accommodate changes in the serial.

Related fields, etc.

008/23, 580, 780/785, Appendix M, Appendix N

008/22  006/05  (MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data)

See also:


Section E.  MARC 21 Format for Serials as Applied Within CONSER

CONSER Editing Guide:  Contents